Child development from 1 year to 2 years

Contents

1 year – 1 year 3 months

Motor development

Walks alone, but can also fall. If the child is afraid to go by himself, help him. It is better to give the baby a chance to be taken for your forefingers, and not just hold his hands. To 1 year and 3 months able to pass at least 20 steps without sitting down.

Most children at this age get on feet independently, without holding surrounding subjects.

The kid easily changes position of a body turns, moves back. Can go and take the ball in your hands, most of children start doing it in 13 months.

Be very attentive to the child when he begins to walk independently. In order to ensure its security even more strictly than before, check all the possible routes of movement and clean everything that can harm the baby. On the other hand, if you spend your days going, never taking his eyes off him, saying: do Not touch, do not take, do not go, – then the child will become nervous, and your life will not be too calm.

Climbs, clambers on sofas and low chairs. Half of the children aged 15 months can climb on an adult chair and get down with it back on the floor.

If you give a pencil, takes it all brush and can scribbles to them.

Food. Surely holds a Cup with two hands and drinks from it, almost without spilling. But to put the Cup in place until may, often gives it to an adult.

Tries is dense or half dense food spoon from the plate, even if it to it specially was not taught. Keeps spoon in a Cam, lowers in dense food, gaining a little, brings to a mouth, eats. Can learn to use a fork, but an adult should supervise this process, the child was not hurt.

Household skills. Takes off his shoes if it is not buttoned up and not tied. At the request directs hands under a stream of water. After washing you can teach the child to wipe hands the towel given him.

Mental development

By 15 months does not pull inedible subjects and fingers in the mouth.

Game. Play activity becomes more a variety of, after all, learning how to walk, your baby begins to push and pull anything. We recommend to buy the cart on a string or pen that the child can constantly load, unload and carry for himself.

After display of the adult can supply one cube to another and thus to build house a tower of two cubes. First show, and then let your child build a tower of their own. Child 15 months of life does not take cubes in a mouth, does not throw cubes on a floor, and performs the task exactly.

Also, show your child how to remove the ring from the rod of a pyramid and again to put on them. Give him a chance to perform this exercise as many times as baby wants. You should not at this stage require that it collected a pyramid correctly. The main thing in this lesson is to practice the skill of putting rings on a rod. At 15 months the child surely removes rings of 4-5 pyramid and can wear 1-2 rings (some children and more) without taking into account their size.

In 1-1,5 years children are very interested in all sorts of holes, strings, laces. For this age and come up safe games, especially different kinds of lacing. To complex actions with this kind toys brought pleasure to the child, it is necessary to observe some conditions. First, lacings should not lie in one place with other toys. Give out them only on occupations, and after hide. So the interest of the child will not dry up. Secondly, you should remember that at this age there is no such occupation which could carry away the child for a long time. Pinching – cooperative game, there must be participation and encouraging attention to adult is difficult for the child process falling into the hole. And third, if the child showed no interest in the toy, so it’s him before, because each baby’s individual pace of development. Offer the toy should be a bit later – a month or two.

The same applies to the age at which the child seizes ability to distinguish geometrical figures and to insert objects into each other depending on their shape and size. In addition, this ability is related to the availability of such toys. Therefore, in the beginning of the second year of life it is necessary to buy one or more sets of the games inserts. Ear are small items that need to be put in the corresponding holes. Depending on where it is embedded object, games, the liners are divided into three main types: ear in the frame, the liners one to the other and pyramid.

Inserts in the frame. Frame with slots of different shapes can be planar, in the form of boards of tablet or volume representing the toy boxes, in the walls which these notched slits and done. The kid has to pick slot the figure is exactly the same shape and insert it into the hole. If the figure insert coincided with a frame a silhouette, she will strongly sit down in nest or safely in it will fail.

Liners one to the other. This type of ear is a traditional Russian nesting doll. Now time in addition to the dolls there are so many other toys of this type. The number of subjects which are inserted one into another, variously from two three to ten and more. By 15 months of life, 95% of children know how to insert a small one in a larger size.

All inserts improve visual and tactile perception of shape, size of subjects, develop mobility of fingers, the so-called fine motor skills, coordination of movements of hands. In some designers for small children also there are figures allowing to train insertion.

Naturally, you first need to show the child how to play with these toys. Take a Board the tablet with cuts for three geometrical figures (circle, triangle, square). In the eyes of the child take out three figures from cells of a Board and give one of figures in hands of the kid with the offer to put it in hole Board. Please note the child, if the figure falls right into the niche, then the Board becomes smooth. If the child performs the job incorrectly and tries to put the circle in the other hole, slide the handle on the figure on the blackboard with the words: See, turned out as it unevenly, and need to keep the Board smooth. Praise of the child. At the age of 15 months the child can cope with the task at the insertion of the circle. You can also demonstrate the ratio of objects the child: for example, pulling out a smaller cube from the larger one. However, at the beginning the child tries to put items into each other, applying a first force.

Periodically, you need to limit the amount of toys in front of baby so he could concentrate on the game with these figures.

When choosing between random objects and toys child this age to play prefers the toy. Long begins to play alone, without an adult present. On their own, without a request of the adult, performs the learned actions with a toy: to feed a doll, putting to bed the bear, rolling machine and buzzing at the same time (bi bi, Dr RR).

However, to the age of the child little occupies emotionally semantic value of a toy. It is more interested in what this toy can do. Noted that children of this age like to repeat long different actions with the same subject. This is because they show interest in its different properties. Kid interested to learn that cubes it is possible not only to put on one another, but also to fasten one to another, to load on the machine, put in a box and close it. Sometimes, however, the child should be guided in the game, or he can survive and gain a foothold primitive monotonous actions: he can endlessly roll the machine, take cubes in a mouth, shift toys from one hand in another etc. Show to the child how to use a toy hammer, shovel, shovel, etc.

It is necessary to buy the child a doll no larger than 30-40 cm Scientists note identical interest of little boys and girls to play with doll. Should not be afraid of that game in dolls on the second year of life as that will influence future sexual orientation of the boy. The younger the child, the easier it must be a doll. The first buys an inexpensive doll from soft materials (fabric, rubber, foam rubber, plastisols, etc.) without wig of hair and sound effects. The doll needs to be on hinges which allow to change the position limbs, that gives you the ability to dress and undress, put it, etc.

If by the age of one year the kid already mastered feeding of a bear, laying to sleep dolls, after a year game actions with a toy gradually from concrete become more abstract, abstract. The child not only carries out that only standard action with a concrete toy in which he was trained, for example to feed a bear with a spoon. Now on the discretion, certainly, after your previews, the kid can feed the doll, and quite live cat. But wouldn’t feed from a spoon the TV because knows: TVs from a spoon eat.

Child development from 1 year to 2 years

In games often imitates household actions of adults: reads and speaks by phone, as the father; sweeps and wipes a floor, as mother.

Puts toys and objects in a container (drawer, box or basket). If your baby still doesn’t want to do, look to yourself: do you own the desire for order, discipline? Hard to educate those qualities not possessed by himself. If you are very unorganized, but want that the child was another, try to overcome his nature and more often bring an order in the apartment and in the kitchen.

Many children at this age continue to throw one subject behind another on a floor: dump them from the table, throw out toys from the crib. We should not support this game a habit, constantly lifting a toy and giving to the child that he again threw it.

Action with toys accompanied by emotions. They manifest themselves in the facial expressions of the child and intonations of a voice.

Often he looks at the adult, especially in new or difficult situations, including questioningly. Smiles, looking into his eyes or shout, whims draws the attention of the close adult. The look becomes more expressive and gets various shades: joyful, interested, asking, asking and so on. Tension, unhappy facial expression appear at restriction of movement of the child, discomfort, refusal in the desirable. Is surprised, frightened unexpected, new. Attracts the attention of the close adult with emotionally painted exclamations, a mimicry, the movements or crying, takes by hand.

Increasingly uses a pointing gesture.

Shows the hand and the forefinger or in a variety of situations: in order that you give the right thing in response to your request to show a subject to attract your attention.

Shakes her head from side to side as a sign of denial gesture no. Nods in agreement gesture Yes.

Loves independently or together with an adult to consider the book with pictures,but more often simply overturns on some pages at once. Longer and more attentively listens to fairy tales which you read to the child with display of bright pictures in the book. On pictures at your request shows familiar subjects and some animals. Maybe at own will to stick with a forefinger into brightly painted subjects on the page.

All inserts improve visual and tactile perception of shape, size of subjects, develop mobility of fingers, the so-called fine motor skills, coordination of movements of hands. In some designers for small children also there are figures allowing to train insertion.

Naturally, you first need to show the child how to play with these toys. Take a Board the tablet with cuts for three geometrical figures (circle, triangle, square). In the eyes of the child take out three figures from cells of a Board and give one of figures in hands of the kid with the offer to put it in the hole of the Board. Please note the child, if the figure falls right into the niche, then the Board becomes smooth. If the child performs the job incorrectly and tries to put the circle in the other hole, slide the handle on the figure on the blackboard with the words: See, turned out as it unevenly, and need to keep the Board smooth. Praise of the child. At the age of 15 months the child can cope with the task at the insertion of the circle. You can also demonstrate the ratio of objects the child: for example, pulling out a smaller cube from greater. However, at the beginning the child tries to put items into each other, applying a first force.

Periodically, you need to limit the amount of toys in front of baby so he could concentrate on the game with these figures.

When choosing between random objects and toys child this age to play prefers the toy. Long begins to play alone, without an adult present. On their own, without a request of the adult, performs the learned actions with a toy: to feed a doll, putting to bed the bear, rolling machine and buzzing at the same time (bi bi, Dr RR).

However, to the age of the little child occupies emotionally semantic value of a toy. It is more interested in what this toy can do. Noted that children of this age like to repeat long different actions with the same subject.

This is because they show interest in its different properties. Kid interested to know that cubes can not only to put on one another, but also to fasten one to another, to load on the machine, put in a box and close it. Sometimes, however, the child should be guided in the game, or he can survive and gain a foothold primitive monotonous actions: he can endlessly roll the machine, take cubes in a mouth, shift toys from one hand in another etc. Show to the child how to use a toy hammer, shovel, shovel, etc.

It is necessary to buy the child a doll no larger than 30-40 cm Scientists note identical interest of little boys and girls to play with doll. Should not be afraid of that game in dolls on the second year of life as that will influence future sexual orientation of the boy. The younger the child, the easier it must be a doll. First bought inexpensive doll from soft materials (fabric, rubber, foam rubber, plastisols, etc.) without wig of hair and sound effects. The doll needs to be on hinges which allow to change the position of extremities that gives the chance to dress and undress, put it, etc.

If by the age of one year the kid already mastered feeding of a bear, laying to sleep dolls, after a year game actions with a toy gradually from concrete become more abstract, abstract. The child not only carries out that only standard action with a concrete toy in which he was trained, for example to feed bear with a spoon. Now on the discretion, certainly, after your previews, the kid can feed the doll, and quite live cat. But wouldn’t feed from a spoon the TV because knows: TVs from a spoon eat.

In games often imitates household actions of adults: reads and speaks by phone, as the father; sweeps and wipes a floor, as mother.

Puts toys and objects in a container (drawer, box or basket). If your baby still doesn’t want to do, look to yourself: do you own the desire for order, discipline? It’s hard to raise those qualities not possessed by himself. If you are very unorganized, but want that the child was another, try to overcome his nature and more often bring an order in the apartment and in the kitchen.

Child development from 1 year to 2 years

Many children at this age continue to throw one subject behind another on a floor: dump them from the table, throw out toys from the crib. We should not support this game a habit, constantly lifting a toy and giving to the child that he again threw it.

Actions with toys are accompanied by emotions. They manifest themselves in the facial expressions of the child and intonations of a voice.

Often he looks at the adult, especially in new or difficult situations, including interrogatively. Smiles, looking into his eyes or shout, whims draws the attention of the close adult. The look becomes more expressive and gets various shades: joyful, interested, asking, asking and so on. Tension, unhappy facial expression appear at restriction of movement of the child, discomfort, refusal in the desirable. Is surprised, frightened unexpected, new. Attracts the attention of the close adult with emotionally painted exclamations, a mimicry, the movements or crying, takes by hand.

Increasingly uses a pointing gesture.

Shows the hand and the forefinger or in a variety of situations: in order that you give the right thing in response to your request to show a subject to attract your attention.

Child development from 1 year to 2 years

Shakes her head from side to side as a sign of denial gesture no. Nods in agreement gesture Yes.

Loves independently or together with an adult to consider the book with pictures,but more often simply overturns on some pages at once. Longer and more attentively listens to fairy tales which you read to the child with display of bright pictures in the book. On pictures at your request shows familiar subjects and some animals. Maybe at own will to stick with a forefinger into brightly painted subjects on the page.

Speech understanding

In this period there is rapid growth of the passive dictionary. Kid well knows names of close adults, understands many names of familiar toys, surrounding subjects, names of clothes. At the request shows a hand or takes the subjects called adults.

Continues to evolve and improve the ability to generalize. For example, in response to a request bring to mother a ball the child can bring easily any of the available nearby balls, and not only those with whom he usually plays. Bring machine – brings several toy cars. But as the experience of the child is still small, and he is not able to allocate a significant characteristic in the group of subjects, and generalizations are wrong. For example, the word ball, the child represents all objects that are round. Children of this age can make a generalization on a functional basis: a hat is a hat, scarf, cap etc.

Understands words for actions and certain situations. To 1 year and 3 months must be not less than three (the number of used action verbs) sample instructions: find something, get something, put it back. Instructions can be and others: give to the aunt, open and close the box. Begins to perform also more difficult, but habitual instructions: went to eat etc.

It is important to note that the kid understands what verbal sense of instructions as carries them without gestures or display of the adult.

Child development from 1 year to 2 years

In the process of extending the child’s interaction with the surrounding objects increases the number of required restrictions. There is a need to distinguish between their own, which you can take and which you can use, and others, which can not be taken. If such understanding did not develop independently in the process of daily communication, for education of this understanding it is possible to use the game.

For example, when collecting on walk it is possible to simultaneously learn the identity of things. The mother put the child up his hat and speaks: My hat at Sasha, and the baby laughs. She then wears on his head a cap of the child, laughs and speaks: Mother put on Sasha’s hat, that, naturally, is even funnier, including for a child. Then you change caps, to satisfaction of the child who receives back the thing. Finally, you placed his hat beside him, and beanie baby nearby with him and say: my mother’s hat from mom, and Sasha’s own cap. Then you ask that the child put near your hat your shoes, gloves and other things, and with his hat his boots and jacket. After the walk you can continue learning things. you move through the apartment and show to the child different things: This mother’s coat, Is father’s trousers, It is a grandmother’s chest etc. Child all this remembers and if grandma takes a mother’s bag, is indignant and tries to restore order.

So the child gradually learns, what things and his subjects and he can dispose of them, and what things belong to other people and he’s not allowed to touch them without permission.

However, the implementation of bans is difficult because at this age becomes expressed intractability of the child, appears children negativism.

Shows at your request 1-2 (or more) parts of the body, parts of the face at itself, other person and the toy.

Active speech

If you show the child the photo of mother, father or other close adult, he recognizes them. Half of the children at this age can answer correctly the question: Look, who is it? Calls adult photos by name.

Child development from 1 year to 2 years

To 15 months in the active dictionary uses not less than six simple words, but they are real words, not words, labels or facilitated words: mother, father, uncle, give, on, etc. These present words mean specific people or actions. With regard to labels, often spoken by children at this age, they are multivalued. For lack of words a child is forced to use these babbling sounds sound combinations or something resembling a grunt. The sounds are complemented by gestures (pointing finger, stalling you for clothes, etc.).

At the age of one to one and a half years, but sometimes later says like a whole sentence from a large number of illegible words, which creates the impression of a slim, though incomprehensible speech. It makes no sense to ask a child to speak more slowly, hoping to parse his words. In fact, it’s a game of words – training pronunciation of words. Spoken sound combinations are not real words. This set of senseless sequences from different syllables: TYA BOJ ti, mA ti TYA etc. It’s like a game of words needed to development this phase of the question is as much as needed for this game in the syllables before.

1 year 4 months – 1 year 6 months

Motor development

Well independently goes: directly, around the circle, goes around the items. Runs, looking to itself under feet. Almost does not drop.

Confidently itself, without holding subjects, gets on feet. When walking without difficulties holds a toy, but can drop. If you put on the floor next to the standing child the subject interesting him, the child squats on hunkers or bends with the knees bent to take it, then rectified or independently gets up from the squat.

Independently sits down and sits on the chair, the bench. Climbs into adult chair and sits in it. Shows ingenuity: inserts that fit, use the extra piece to get the necessary thing.

Starts throwing the ball after he will show you how to do it. Learning to throw a ball down, forward, up.

Rolls in front of the stroller. While walking pulls toy over the rope behind him. Children with early development walk start to do it by the year.

With a support, that is, holding in one hand the hand of an adult or grabbing the railing, and begins to climb the stairs to the entrance of the house.

Food. Confidently eat a thick food with a spoon from a plate. Trying to have liquid food with a spoon. The spoon holds more childish, in a fist. Can use a fork.

Most children at this age can independently take the Cup, drink from it and then put in place.

Household skills. Undresses with little help from adults. Sneakers, hat, mittens, gloves, socks, can remove on their own. Trying to take off the pantyhose before bathing. Unzips on clothes.

Also with the help of an adult may wear socks, shoes or hat.

Tries to help adults around the house. Performs your household requests: will bring from other room the pot or your remote control your TV, erase garbage in the bin or bucket. Understands and performs more various and new instructions: close a door etc.

If you already rarely use pampers, the child tells to parents that wetted or soiled panties, that is did not hold urine or feces.

Encourage your child to new hygienic skills to brush teeth children’s paste. If the child resists, temporarily postpone this procedure.

Mental development

With concentration plays, doing without your presence or assistance. Thus takes independent actions with toys.

Enjoys own successes and gets upset if something does not work.

Independently builds a tower of two cubes. If you show how to make higher structure, can construct a tower and of three four cubes. Teach your kid to build train (four dice in a row), the bridge (one cube is on the other two). Every time to observe the actions of the child, take the time to correct it. Important as your child understands you as corrects errors as trained.

For example an adult, and then can independently construct machine. The kid puts a cube on an oblong detail of the designer and moves this construction, reproducing the movement of the machine.

By 18 months some children collect a pyramid already from three five rings, but still without taking into account their size.

You must have houses on one pyramid of a different form: one with round rings, and another with the square, strung segments. The pyramid should be roughly the same size. Show your child both pyramids, explain that one rings all round and the other square bars with holes for stringing. With your child collect the pyramid. Again disassemble them. Ask the child: Show where the circular ring, where a square bar? Help your child to arrange the details in a row (round on one side, square on the other) and then place one round piece and one square. Take the child’s hand in his and run it round the pyramid: Look, how smooth. For another: And this pyramid absolutely another, with sharp corners. The child cannot self-leveling square bars on the web, the so folded piece will be uneven. The main purpose of this exercise acquaintance to subjects of a different form. To teach the child to carefully match the bars will be in a few months.

Continue with the child game training on insertion of objects, as described in the previous section. Except insertion of flat figures in Board, the child may be interested in the insertion of bulky objects. If you still did not buy, for training of ability of insertion it is necessary to purchase a toy under the name mailbox. It’s a box or pail with a lid having openings of different geometrical shapes and their corresponding liners. In the box the box is the first to stick a few items, and then to open it and release them for re-pushing. Better if the box is transparent. However, at the beginning the child can try to put subjects, using first of all force, without a form and interposition of sides of subjects and framework. Therefore, an adult should first demonstrate the correlation of items to the child.

Strengthened understanding distinguish between big – small. Most children at this age at your request or independently during game can paste each other objects of the same shape, slightly different in size. For example, a small plastic Cup in a Cup of medium size.

For training of inserting from 1 year 3 months recommend the use of the doll with one liner, i.e. of the whole set of nesting dolls use only one big and another smaller, while the rest clean. Teach child to open and close a nested doll. For this show a big nested doll, shake her – something inside rattles. Help the kid to open a nested doll, show the second, small matreshek. Close a big nested doll, put near the small. Pay attention to their size: one nested doll big, other small. Ask the child Where large matryoshka, where’s the little? Now, open a big nested doll, hide in it small and suggest the child to close it the second half, tightly connecting the two halves. Can combine thus drawing, but usually during the second year of life the child is not able by itself correctly to combine drawing on a nested doll. Help your child to open and close nested dolls.

Continues to imitate close adults: reads the book or newspaper, as the father; prepares lessons, as the sister. Increase the number used in household items, the purpose of which understands. Loves to play with household items. Trying to help adults around the house.

Continues to reproduce independently in game and other, often observed actions of adults: feeds, brushes, washes a doll, wipes her nose a scarf; washes the floor or clothes, prepares to eat etc. If you do not notice these actions at the child, then run your tests.

Quiz game

Put near the child a doll and put a handkerchief. Speak: Lyali dirty nose. Here is the handkerchief. The child must attach a handkerchief to the nose of the doll. Put near the child a doll with hair and put the comb. Say, Doll Lala disheveled, here’s a comb. The child puts a hairbrush to hair of a doll and drives it through his hair. One and a half years, he must perform both tests.

Ceases to throw one subject behind another on a floor.

Attention!

If this game remains favorite, it is necessary to carefully check whether the child lags behind in other types of mental activity.

To worry about the mental development of a child should, if at this age, after the teething, the child constantly continues to pull inedible subjects in a mouth. Especially if there is a withhold of saliva.

These phenomena can be observed in healthy children and later in the eruption of the remaining teeth, but then they are not constant, but only during the eruption. Usually the child can see that he takes the object in the mouth is not to try it to taste, and to RUB the gums.

Drawing pencil, felt-tip pen. Leaves on the paper to Doodle: zigzags, dashes, rarely open ovals and not very straight lines.

Interested in the actions of other children.However, there may be negativity in the relationship with peers: not inferior to his the toy takes away someone else’s. If the child does not understand the need to share after your verbal explanations, to fight against greed best through play. For example, the adult (mother, grandmother) gives the child to take a bite of the carrot, then bites herself. Then gives the baby all the carrot and begging to Give grandma a piece, and opens his mouth. In the absence of adequate reaction of the child the adult can push the handle of the child with the stick to yourself and take a bite. Then again, the child bites off a piece, and then bites an adult. Since a large part of the stick remains in the hand of the child, he continues to feed the adult, not forgetting yourself. After that it is possible colourfully and compassionately to explain to the kid how hungry his Teddy bear or doll, and invite the child to feed the toy. Learning to share toys and people food, the child begins to understand that he can care about other people, to feel sorry and console them if they are bad.

During the game the child wants to show an interesting toy to mother or father, he hands her an adult, but this does not mean that the child wants to give a toy. In fact, it is a pity to give up the toy, it simply shares the impressions about it. Need to teach the child to share things, give them to other kids for a little while to play. Can to tell about different subjects: Here your very kind bear. He likes to share his toys, delicious food, you probably soon will to take from his example. When the child holds the machine in his hands, the adult tells him about it: shows wheels, a cabin, steering wheel and other details. Or the child in the hands of the book, and mother shows him

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.