- Chapter 1. Theoretical and methodological foundations of the moral-aesthetic education of children of senior preschool age
- 1.1 features of moral-aesthetic education of children of senior preschool age
- What is the nature and characteristics of moral-aesthetic education?
- 1.2 the Value of literature in moral and aesthetic education of children of senior preschool age
- 1.3 literature as a means of moral-aesthetic education of children of senior preschool age
The concept of moral aesthetic upbringing are very wide. The core of education is the development of moral qualities of the person. When brought up these qualities, man is properly guided in life. The main task of moral education is to transform the social requirements of society, the internal incentives for the development of the child’s personality, to cultivate such social qualities as duty, conscience, dignity, tolerance, compassion, active life position, the need for self-improvement, courage.
The modern period in Russian history and education is the time of change of values. Changed life priorities of youth, deformity traditional for Russian society’s moral norms and moral principles.
One of the very effective means of moral and aesthetic development of children believe fiction. Many of the ills in today’s education stem from the fact that the book has ceased to be the guys best friend. To the book as a gift today is considered almost an insult.
Ignorance of the samples of Russian classical literature, the lack of positive guidance lead the children to a lack of spirituality, moral poverty. The decline of interest in reading reduces the horizon, impoverished vocabulary, correct speech becomes unavailable, generates emotional poverty.
Literature has a huge impact on personality development, character formation of children, teaches us to think and analyze, to defend their interests, develop imagination, enriches it, opens the world of human feelings and relationships.
Fiction is a powerful, effective means of mental, moral and aesthetic education of children, it has a huge impact on the development and enrichment of the child’s speech. It enriches vocabulary with new words, poetic language, figurative expressions. Literature helps the child to Express their attitude to the heard, using language forms.
In the poetic images of fiction opens and explains the child life society and nature, the world of human feelings and relationships. It enriches emotions brings imagination gives the child a wonderful sample of the Russian literary language. These samples are different in their impact: in the stories children learn about conciseness and precision of expression, the poems capture the musical melodiousness, rhythm of Russian speech, in folk tales to children reveals the ease and expressiveness of the language, the richness of speech, humor, lively and figurative expressions, similes.
Fiction causes the interest to personality and inner world of the hero. Learning to empathize heroes works, children begin to notice the mood of people around them. The children awaken humane feelings – the ability to show compassion, his kindness, protest against injustice. This is the basis on which foster integrity, honesty, citizenship.
The educational function of literature is special, peculiar only to the art of way – impact of artistic image. According to A. V. Zaporozhets aesthetic perception is a complex mental activity that combines both intellectual and emotional-volitional motives . In the method of training the perception of artworks is considered as an active volitional process with an imaginary transfer of events, the mind’s action with the effect of personal involvement.
Literature accompanies man from the first years of his life. In preschool childhood the Foundation is laid on which will rest all subsequent acquaintance with the great literary heritage.
The purpose of this research is to theoretically justify the value of literature in moral and aesthetic education of children of preschool age.
Object: the process of moral-aesthetic education of children of senior preschool age.
Subject: art literature as a means of moral-aesthetic education of children of senior preschool age.
- to reveal the peculiarities of the moral-aesthetic education of children of senior preschool age;
- to review the functions and genres of children’s literature;
- to show the role of literature in moral and aesthetic education of preschool children;
- develop a advice for parents on the use of literature in moral and aesthetic education of children of senior preschool age.
Chapter 1. Theoretical and methodological foundations of the moral-aesthetic education of children of senior preschool age
1.1 features of moral-aesthetic education of children of senior preschool age
Moral and aesthetic development child is a process of quantitative and qualitative changes in the spiritual, the moral character of the child and promote his moral maturity. These changes were reflected in the awareness of moral aspects of reality, and understanding of himself as the bearer of morality, nature of moral relations of the child to other people, to yourself, to the phenomena of life, of activity, which are manifested in corresponding behavior.
Moral education of children is determined by their conscientious attitude to learning, to labour for the common good; concern about the overall success of the group class; a solid friendship and mutual assistance; exemplary behavior in school and in the family. On the basis of long-term observations of I. S. Maryenko and others have identified a variety of qualities of the children, together with teachers divided into groups indicating the negative effects in their behavior.[13. c. 89]
The first group can be attributed to careless attitude to teaching because of the poor overall development, the lack of preparation for academic classes, passive or indifferent attitude towards life cool collective, in his opinion.
To the second group of lying, rudeness, moodiness and stubbornness, mischief and pugnacity, dishonesty in the actions
The third group is a single manifestation of egoism, selfishness, covetousness, arrogance, conceit.
The process of moral-aesthetic education is primarily the process of learning: knowledge morality students receive the lessons literature, history, social studies etc. School can enter the special lessons of morality, as is often done abroad. In extracurricular educational work interviews should be conducted on social, moral issues, discussion of topical issues for adolescents. Remembering that a person brought up in activities, it is necessary to organize socially useful activities aimed at helping those in need, to the decision available to children with social problems inside and outside of school.
The formation of moral consciousness, of course, the process is subtle and deeply connected with the formation of the worldview of the student, with the development of its identity, finding your place in the world and the meaning of life. Therefore, it is important that the process of training and education in the school contributed to the desire of the teenager to solve the eternal questions of life, to think about what really matters: what is life, man, God, nature… – then, most likely, and morality will be better. [13. c. 90]
Three levels of moral development identified in his research T. A. Markov, and L. A. Penkova:
- ) high – a combination of knowledge, emotion, will;
- ) medium unstable behavior of children: can’t show kindness and understanding to his friends and family, are rude, are rude, their behavior depends on the specific situation;
- ) low – children are indifferent to their peers.[18, p. 163]
It is impossible not to take into account common discrepancy verbal judgment of the child and his actions. Can be made high moral judgment, but very different behavior.
Among the actions of children are a special group of joint actions two, three. Most often, leaders of such groups are older guys. In this case, one should distinguish between acts of deliberate and unintentional; accidental, but unites the whole class.
The General line of conduct and each individual act of the child have their own motive power. Not knowing them, it is impossible to correctly judge the true relationship of the child to the environment. Although in the field of moral education of preschool children we have a total positive results, but negative phenomena the level of their moral education is still significant. Their manifestation can and must be prevented and overcome.
In the process of moral development of the child we distinguish the following groups of contradictions:
First, the internal contradictions among the current and emerging needs and opportunities of the child. This is reflected, for example, constant collisions are willing and able; willing but unable; I can, but don’t want to.
Secondly, the contradictions between the needs, capabilities of the child and the education system as a purposeful organization throughout his life and activities (need not want). These contradictions every day manifested in the relationship between the child and his caregivers, children’s collective and a child.
Thirdly, between the current capabilities of the child, the aspirations of educators and the influence of the environment. And notable among them are the effects that contribute to the achievement of the objectives of education and resisting this force in both unintentional and intentional impacts. [18; c. 165]
Thus, combining all of the above research, we can say that school age children have considerable development reserves. Their identification and effective use is one of the main tasks of pedagogy.
Moral-aesthetic education is an important component in the formation of personality, because morality is the regulator relationship between people, penetrates into all spheres of life, shaping the consciousness and determines the behavior of people. The General task of moral education is to shape human beliefs, which provide solidarity with people, to develop eternal values: friendship, compassion, caring for parents and children, etc.
Children of the same age often differ from each other and common development, and interests, and their capabilities. Environment it organized and directional influence – education – affect the person and cause of his sides response. The relationship between the organism and the environment are regulated in humans, the most complex tool – the nervous system and its highest division bark of the brain, so the environment with its endless stimuli affects the nervous system, and thereby created not only the necessary cause for immediate reflex, but in the plastic brain tissue, its nerve cells accumulate traces of these influences in the future [10; c. 108].
The main distinguishing feature of each age period is characterized by the fact that qualitative changes are taking place. It is clear that the new qualitative feature appears immediately, she prepared a long and slow through the preliminary development. To be able to find these quality features is much more difficult than to say that at a certain age children a little more or a little less understand, feel, know. Therefore, the characteristic age should be considered not only from a quantitative difference, but with new qualities.
Referring to the constant movement and change in development, it is necessary to be careful in relation to characteristics of age, age. Features of the age are not fixed. Much better to understand age-related traits relatively stable characteristics. So, you need to keep in mind that features – too common and extremely relative characteristics.
These studies have large the value in the study of the characteristics of moral development.
Moral education is an important aspect of formation and development of personality. Moral formation of a person begins at birth. Special importance of preschool and younger school age.
The process of assimilation by the child of the rules and regulations that guide the management of their behavior, were studied in the work of V. A. Gorbacheva. On the basis of long-term observations, analysis of children’s behavior and their statements, she came to the conclusion that children as young as seven clearly differencebut as behavior comrades and his own. They consciously allocate the rules themselves and begin to be guided by them. The behavior becomes more independent and sustainable. Children influence the behavior and actions of each other, requiring compliance with the rules, and can accept the rules given by the teacher in a generalized form .
The same view is shared by L. I. Ruvinskaya. But, supplementing, believes that the child still does not establish connection between behavior and its shortcomings, is not aware of its qualities. And, despite the presence of all obvious prerequisites of understanding the personality, children are not able to establish links between their actions and qualities, explain their behavior only by external circumstances. The children’s inability to transfer the connection established between the actions and qualities of the individual to other situations that give rise to the same disadvantages or advantages, according to L. I. Ruvinskaya, indicate that children formally repeating the opinions of adults, do not establish a connection between the actions and qualities of the individual, are not aware of the latter [5; c. 166].
In other works psychologists S. L. Rubinstein, L. I., Ruvinskaya found that preschool age is characterized by receptivity to external influences, belief in the truth of everything is taught, say, in the absoluteness and necessity of moral norms.
As means for solving problems of moral and aesthetic education are Word, Image and Action. So, for the success of education, according to V. F. Odoevskogo (1804-1869.), the importance of the art of talking with children. The living word can produce a powerful effect on all the internal development of the child, on the development of mental, aesthetic, moral and religious. The words addressed to the children by parents or teacher, excite in the child’s soul or good or bad feelings, according to her or a fair and proper view of things, or look false and false. Moral and religious beliefs are imposed on children through example and through the living word (V. F. Odoevsky). An important role is played by the fact that in the mind of the child reflects the attitude of the adult to what is happening with him, which is manifested in joint activities, shared goals, norms and values.
The basis of such a relationship lies in the emotional identification, when a person puts himself in the place of another in joint activities and this identification prompts him to self-activity to overcome other difficulties. Compassion is connected with empathy, understanding the other person, that is, implies an emotional interpenetration with the other person and the formation in the process of sustainable self-evaluation.
One of the goals of the moral-aesthetic education in the Russian pedagogy is the education of the child’s desire to participate in the creation of a beautiful. For this reason V. S. Solovyov (1853-1900) at the time wrote about the faith of Russians in the legacy of F. M. Dostoevsky’s faith in the saving force beauty: beauty in its positive contents is not that other, as a global goal, the state should strive to achieve peace and that will come through the incarnation in it of Truth and Goodness.
Analysis of the research suggests that in domestic pedagogy are intertwined philosophical and spiritual problems of the integration of moral and aesthetic education.
What is the nature and characteristics of moral-aesthetic education?
Moral-aesthetic education of the individual is a complicated and lengthy process, which includes pedagogical, social, and spiritual influence, but, however, this process Autonomous.
Social influence for moral and aesthetic education are: social conditions, biological factors, informal communication, however, the decisive role is played here by the interaction, since it is most meaningful and manageable.
The purpose of the moral-aesthetic education – development of society and high spirituality, the formation of the young citizens with the moral and aesthetic values and personal qualities necessary for the formation of ethical positions, is able to manifest itself in the creative process in the interests of their homeland.
The achievement of this goal through the following tasks: 1) selection of certain values, in tune with the inner world of the child and at the same time which have public importance – the Foundation of content; 2) the development of measures of love depending on the object. B. C. Solovyov provided the main measure of love: reverence (profound reverence), understanding, compassion, pity, shame and abstinence; 3) the impact of the teacher on the moral-aesthetic sphere of the person, which is the backbone of his inner world. Through the content of education, the position of the teacher, the humanity of his personality to reach the heart of each student and to address his emotional and motivational sphere; 4) internalization of humanistic values content education, which should be included in soul child and become his inner self.
The result an effective process of moral and aesthetic education of preschool children can be: the level of moral and aesthetic values, awareness of the pupils, reaction to pedagogical influence and interaction, the richness of spiritual needs.
In the initial period of formation of personal qualities, personality traits, child’s perception of a work of art plays a crucial role, as it lays the foundations and aesthetic relationship to the world and moral standards of behavior.
To sum up the experience of modern educators and supervisors, the main result of this intersection of the lines of aesthetic and socio-moral development of preschoolers today are: emotional response of children to available their understanding of the phenomena of social life; the desire to empathize with another’s joy and sorrow; the constant search and attempts, at least in the game, to convert life; the desire to participate in active labour, aesthetically adorn the life; the need for joint action, the ability to enjoy the successes of others, etc, then, aesthetic education, as shown by studies conducted by such authors as G. G. Grigor’eva, T. G. Kazakov, T. S. Komarova, N.. Vetlugina influence the formation of the basis of personal culture as the most important psychological growths of the children of preschool age.
In accordance with Federal state requirements to structure of educational programs of preschool education, teacher it is important to be able to find such methods, techniques, forms and types of activities that would provide the best educational effect. Such is the method integration different kinds of arts, for example, literature and dramatization. Accordingly, we are talking about the integration of such educational areas of standard pre-school education, as Cognition, Communication, Music and Art creativity, on the one hand, and educational field Reading of literature.
As a means to associate the word pedagogue, moral and aesthetic ideas, generated in children in the process familiarization with fiction, with their life in modern methodical development offers comprehensive classes, which are preferred in the methods of familiarizing of preschool children to fiction and which are an integral part of the system works on moral and aesthetic education of preschool children in the process of reading literature.
1.2 the Value of literature in moral and aesthetic education of children of senior preschool age
Summarizing the experience of modern educators and methodologists suggests that the aesthetic and moral development of preschoolers go hand in hand. The realization of the moral-aesthetic education, according to many authors, should be aimed at the emotional response of children to available their understanding of the phenomena of social life; on the formation of the desire to empathize with another’s joy and sorrow; on the formation of the need for joint action to improve the world.
The goals of this area of education is effectively carried out in the process familiarize preschoolers with fiction. Literature as the major component of culture is designed to serve the formation and development of the moral consciousness, the education of the individual. It should teach young people to distinguish between good and evil, to friends, to love, to Express your feelings and be guided by universal values (O. N. Larionov). The decision of questions of formation of moral qualities and mastery values requires the development of special methodological support.
As shown by the studies of the psychologist A. N. Leontiev, preschool age is characterized by increased susceptibility to external influences, belief in the truth of everything is taught, say, in the absoluteness and necessity of moral norms .
At this age there are great opportunities for systematic and progressive moral education of children.
The program is About the good and the beautiful is the implementation of the pedagogical model of moral-aesthetic education of preschool children in the process of reviewing literature, which includes the following components: purpose, objectives, approaches, principles, contents, criteria, conditions etc .
The purpose of moral and aesthetic education is the education of the person, feeling and appreciating good and beautiful (in word, image, action, relations, etc.); protecting and promoting its spiritual, physical and mental health; the identification, preservation and support personality child.
The main tasks of moral and aesthetic education of preschool children are: the formation of a value system in tune with the inner world of the child, as well as moral and aesthetic criteria; the impact of the teacher on the moral-aesthetic sphere of the person as a system-forming the basis of the inner world of the child; the impact on emotional-motivational sphere of the child; the internalization of humanistic values of education content.
Leading approaches to moral and aesthetic education of preschool children by means of artistic literature are activity-based, communicative, axiological, culturological approaches.
Priority principles for the implementation of the pedagogical model of moral-aesthetic education of preschool children in the process of reviewing literature are: the principle of value orientation, the principle of address approach, the principle of activity, principle of preserving the historical memory of the people, etc.
Children’s moral sense is a complex process. It involves, above all, the formation of their ethical considerations, generalized and differentiated (What means to be a good, kind, fair, honest, empathetic, etc.).
A special role in this process is played by the word art. It literature introduces the child to the world of human feelings, joys and sufferings, relationships, motives, thoughts and actions. Read in childhood, it leaves a much stronger trail than when read in adulthood. We all know that the child is the memory of the heart. If he will not learn to empathize with a child, but, being older, he can remain indifferent to all problems – moral, aesthetic, environmental and social nature. There’s nothing worse than cold indifference of man.
Fiction has a complex effect on the scope of the child’s personality, helps to instill in him the moral and volitional qualities, develops the feelings and emotions.
Great value for moral and aesthetic education of children is reading stories. Their topics are wide and varied. A special place you can take the stories that are dedicated to children and it’s bright stories by A. Gaidar Chuk and GEK, Blue Cup, which contribute to development moral-volitional qualities of dedication, perseverance. And short stories V. oseeva – a series of stories the Magic word in them in fascinating stories, the living characters are the samples of human relationships. These parables teach children courtesy, honesty, form high moral qualities – caring, respect for people, diligence. And the stories N. Kalinina Assistants As Sasha burned nettle teach children courage and obedience, thoughtfulness, and care, enrich the moral character of children, teaching children to be honest, truthful, helpful and kind.
For children of preschool age has a special interest in the world, so in this period of life children should educate their love to the animal world. Through stories about animals: K. Paustovsky cat-thief, Hare feet and Prishvin Lisichkin Khleb, Boys and ducklings, Golden meadow, children are imbued with love to the native nature, native land, learn goodness, what about animals need to take care of: to feed, to cherish, to care for them. Stories about animals brought up in children a sensitivity to form ideas about good and evil .
Of course, nothing compares with the magic world poetry, which enriches the child’s soul with beauty and harmony. Poetry contributes to the awakening sense of beauty, joy and optimism.
Nature is an inexhaustible and eternal source of beauty. In the soul of a child, able to enjoy to enjoy the beauty of nature is not resentment, jealousy, anger. Melodious and lyrical poems of the classics of Russian literature, glorifying the beauty of nature – falling leaves I. Bunin, F. Tyutchev In the sky, the melting clouds, Winter’s angry without reason, A. FET I have come to you with greetings, Pushkin Oh, the sky breathed autumn, Here the North, scolding clouds, Winter morning, teach children to love nature, to understand its beauty and goodness, to be indifferent to nature. They bring observation, deep and sincere love for the Motherland, the Motherland.
The impressions received by children during the reading of works of art, are reflected in creative, productive activities of children – in pictures, modeling, the creation of new words, games, dramatization.
One of my favorite types of children’s activities – drawing. The children’s drawings clearly and comprehensively reflect the world around them (Trees, grass, sun, spring, flowers). Children love to draw positive characters that caused their sympathy (Bunny, Cheburashka, goldfish). That they identify your positive emotions, correctly assess the characters ‘ actions.
Children enthusiastically molded based on your favorite works. DIY kids make out in the song Magical forest full of fairy tales and miracles, through the pages of fairy tales.
Well known to pull the child to write fairy tales, stories and poems. The children’s desire to speak – naturally. Children come up with a continuation of the tale, of a story on a given topic, invisibly present in them moral upbringing value.
Children are happy to portray any of the work. Aesthetic experiences help children to actively Express their attitude to the characters. Reincarnating the characters, experiencing and acting for them, children can discover their understanding not only their character but also of motives. Children, if the execution of the role will entice them, put yourself in the place of the depicted character and live his life.
Thus, the literary work gives much food for thought for children. In the process thinking and emotional activities, they formed the ability to properly assess all of what they learned from the story, tales or poems.
The value of children’s literature is defined by its social and educational role in the lives of all our people.
Through artistic images, can more intelligently and collectively, to see real life facts. This helps the child to know about life, forms his attitude towards the environment. Artwork, revealing the inner world of the characters, forcing the children to worry, to experience the joys and sorrows of the characters as their own.
Learning to survive with the heroes of works of art, children begin to notice the mood of loved ones and the people around him. They begin to awaken in a humane sense – the ability to care. Kindness, protest against injustice. This is the basis on which foster integrity, honesty, a true sense of citizenship. Feelings precede knowledge; who has not felt the truth, he did not understand and did not know her – wrote V. G. Belinsky. [4, p. 20]
Artwork attracts children with its bright shape, but semantic content. Older preschoolers, perceiving the work can to give a conscious, reasoned assessment of the characters, using their judgments established under the influence education criteria of human behavior in our socialist society.
Direct empathy with the characters, the ability to follow the development of the story, mapping the events described in the piece with those that he had observed in life, help child relatively quickly and correctly to understand realistic stories, fairy tales, and by the end of preschool age Changeling, tales.
Children’s poet I. Tokmakova call children’s literature a fundamental principle of education. According to V. A. Sukhomlinsky, fiction contribute to the development of speech, gives examples of Russian literary language.
Artistic expression affects not only consciousness, but also the feelings and actions of the child.
The word can inspire a child, to cause a desire to become better, to do something good, helps to understand human relationships, to meet the standards of conduct. Contributes to the formation of moral ideas and moral experience of children, reveals knowledge about the moral qualities of the person.
Children’s literature is of great importance in the formation of child’s personality, qualities, traits. It was originally aimed at the understanding and creation of the child’s soul. About its importance said well-known educators and psychologists: K. D. Ushinsky, E. I. Miheeva, S. L. Rubinstein and others.
So, through the artistic expression of literature we carry out moral education of children, which is in integral connection with aesthetic education. You also have to teach the child feel and to understand the beauty of life, and the multifaceted and inexhaustible means of aesthetic education is art in all its forms, including art artistic expression.
1.3 literature as tool moral-aesthetic education of children of senior preschool age
Many educators have long talked about the fact that works of literature contribute to the development of speech, give examples of Russian literary language, enrich your vocabulary with new words, poetic language, figurative expressions . Literature helps child to Express their attitude to heard using ready the linguistic forms.
Talking about moral categories that child that the adult with the teachings begin. And here comes to the aid literature. After analyzing program-methodical literature on the topic reviewing literature, we came to the conclusion that the overall picture is approximately as follows: – folklore, Russian and other peoples, works of Russian and foreign (classical and modern) literature. Programs differ in how goals, tasks and organization of work on review literature. Dominate entertainment and aesthetic function the literature, only Z. A. Gritsenko, moral and aesthetic functions working simultaneously.
The variety of existing programs, methods, teaching AIDS leads to the problem of selecting works of fiction. Clear one, no PR