In the present work, it is important to highlight those key factors that are associated with the role of space and environment in childhood. Considering the artistic education of the child from the standpoint of the environment, natural and logical, because it is the view of the human community through human interaction with nature, objective reality and people’s overall view of culture.
The Central place in the history of the formation of these relations have always occupied people, which, according to P. Teilhard de Chardin, is the center of perspective, the center of the design universe. To the knowledge of man as such and the products of its activities, arts in particular, it is necessary the acquisition and development of a number of senses. It is primarily the sense of spatial vastness of the world (great and small), a sense of depth, quantity, proportion, quality of movement. Without this eye man infinitely remains for us no matter how we tried to teach us to see, what it still remains for many people a random item in a fragmented world (Teilhard de Chardin).
No matter what the field human activities we nor touched, it is always related to space and environment since outside the environment, no object, no creature on earth can not be located, whether real life or recreated in literature, tales, epics, songs. In the archaic model of the world, in the mythology of the space occupies a special place, it quickened, spiritualized and qualitatively different (see myths of the world). It’s always filled and always proprietary; outside of things, it does not exist. Gods, people, animals, plants, elements, sacred topography, scruitiny and mythological objects from the sphere of culture constitute the totality of what “organize space“, collects it (myths of the world).
Important to us and this point of view: the space is filled with a variety of particles, behaves like an inert receptacle, and affects them as a guide transmitting an active environment within which organized it a lot. The interaction of person and environment involves a special natural, social and spiritual relationships. In our case, we allocate visual space, as the body of view, by definition, John. Gibson is a system, consisting of eye, head and body. According to research scientists, 85% of the information we receive about the world through the eyes and only 15% from other sources. For a person (small in particular), space in General, that is empty, full of nothing space does not exist. People always need to see, to feel it with all your senses.
All our further reasoning about space will involuntarily associated with the environment, since the environment is object-spatial environment with which man interacts, shapes it according to their ideas, needs, behavior. Each environment may become a stimulus for observation and research. Following this logic, we can distinguish three areas of activity in the environment:
- architecture (interior, objects),
- cultural environment (artistic activity)
- the medium of communication.
As pointed out by A. Rappaport, Wednesday historically is open: without losing its integrity, it absorbs a historical accretions, additions and realignment of material, it tends to be the nature of the ecological models of life. … The environment is exposed to the emotions and at the same time keeps the images of the different stages of history and is detectable on the surface of genetic memory. From the arguments A. Rappoport also be (and it’s most important for us) that the environment as a category of modern aesthetics is closely connected with the vital basis of being art in the natural, social, and psychological meanings. Continuing the reasoning of Rappaport, it is impossible not to identify and not repeat the environmental feature of the environment for human life,not least the environment created culture of his ancestors and himself. The preservation of the cultural environment is no less significant than the preservation of the environment. If humans need nature for his biological life, the cultural environment are equally necessary to his “spiritual residence” for his attachment to his native land for his moral self-discipline and sociality (D. S. Likhachev).
Comparing the space with art, acclaimed artist V. A. Favorsky, pointed out that any realistic image in a spatial form understanding of reality, which expresses a worldview. The subject and space, we have to understand very well. In painting and sculpture are things of reality, you people; in architecture it is the detailed architectural organisms, entering into the space of architecture as large-scale units, as representatives of the people (columns, Windows, door); the ornament is meter; in the literature, with one side, hero-the man and the environment, on the other word, speech, subject and proposal.
Different relationship of the subject to the space, according to V. Favorsky, and space to the subject, their influence on each other and create mutually shape each other. For example, one form of the subject involves a particular form of space and, conversely, the nature and form of the space implies a certain item. The subject and space, as if the two poles, creating the polar voltage form.
A special place occupies the space in art. So, father P. Florensky wrote that all art is the organization of space.
The main categories of space art, according to A. V. Bakushinskii, is primarily spatio-temporal relations. Because art is born and exists immediately several subject-spatial environment. Based on this process of education and upbringing children, we have identified a number of semantic meanings of space and environment:
- environment historical period;
- the space of nature and environment of life;
- the medium of communication between the artist (composer, Director);
- spatial representation of an artist,
- the space and time of creation of the artwork;
- artistic space, which occurs during creative work;
- the spatial environment and the environment in which the artist creates;
- space of sound, color, light, motion, etc.
All this affects the looks, attitude, mentality as an artist and the viewer. Isolate the work of art from among the means to be biased against the Creator.
The only reason to keep the field of view of pedagogy the fact that the impact on the child’s environment the more unacceptable because, according to scientists, the period of childhood is the most sensitive to the effects of environment surrounding the real and the imaginary, environments, past, present and future. To be active in the environment in which it lives, in the environment of imaginary images for a child is as natural as to eat and drink.
We have identified their own positions on the problems of space and environments in the system development of art children in pre-school educational institutions.
First, it is environment and meaningful activities with children in real space, the most natural way of penetration into the essence of any art, visual, music, dance, drama in particular. Environment and space surround the child from the moment of birth. To ignore means to solve the problem of raising children are inadequate.
Secondly, since mastering the art of children is impossible without the participation of an adult. In this regard, it is proposed to consider the space and environment as conditions for the formation of artistic vision using the meaning of the inner form of the word space as about the space of the VAT (go to pofantaziruete, to dance, to lose: peace, painting, music, dance, poetry). Since the space accommodates the length really feel the dimension (or the imaginary), which can be researched through color sense, through the light, the sounds, the melody, the pronunciation of a word, the feeling of silence, of the shape of an object, architectural space, natural landscape. Thus we consider the space (environment) as a way of immersing the child into action in the surrounding space through art that allows us to develop the children space imagination: the breadth of the imagination, the breadth and diversity of experience, thoughts. Since the Russian word for space (see myths of the world) has the exclusive capacity of semantic and poetic expressiveness. Its internal form that appeals to the senses, forward, outward, outward openness, the will.
Thirdly, we should mention another important point made by V. Tasalafil: space and time are the only forms in which life grows and, therefore, should be based art.
We develop the direction of pre-school education involves the natural character of the gradual occurrence of the child in the creative process, as based on the natural propensity of each to understand, to feel and to demonstrate their abilities in various arts.
The child is aware of that second Wednesday. Ideas about home, his things, the smell of home, with its light and color remain in the memory of each person throughout life. A strong imprint in our minds down to the minor details (the way of life, morals, traditions, routines, relationships, children, adults adults and children) leave and child care facilities (kindergarten, school). And the idea about the past, about the history of the people can develop only through the social pictures of life, as pointed out by V. A. Favorsky, the attitude of the subject to the space determines the style. It is therefore important descriptions of the habits, traditions, feelings etc. that can be gleaned from literary and historical texts, diary entries (descriptions of interiors, dress codes, speaking, moving). The same information can be known from the depicted portraits of the heroes (in the picture, in a literary work, song), landscapes, still lifes, compositions of his sketches, records, votes, description of the placement of objects in the interior, colors, light lighting, and more.
Therefore, the development of visual perception children, the creation in kindergartens fertile educational environment is a priority. The child grows and from a substantive and a functional perception of reality is gradually moving to visual perception, which should give him the wholeness of space and the relationship of things to each other (V. A. Favorsky).
In the history of art education the influence of the environment on overall development of children, development of spatial activities, the study of spatial patterns in art, the images often become the province of scholars, teachers and art historians, working in creativity. The greatest response they have received in the 20 years of the twentieth century, but, unfortunately, in the late 30-ies of interest to them gradually faded, and this theme was reflected only in the author’s programs and group classes with a small number of children. Summarizing the experience of introducing children to art and the environment organization of practicing teachers and educators for 20 years has allowed us to isolate the positive examples that have not only retained their relevance and significance to the present day, but also are pivotal in education. The interest in the work of educators, teachers-practitioners and scientists, who worked 20 years with children, called today, and the extraordinary surge in development all arts (music, design, fine arts, literature, poetry dance), which resulted in significant changes in the teaching of art to children. A variety of programs, author’s methods of work, collective research, scientific teachers all this found place in the newly formed kindergartens and schools.
The material environment is understood as all external environment of the child, the material world which the child perceives with the senses and creatively organized. (The role of material environment in the development of artistic and creative development preschooler. M., 1921). This area is considered very important and necessary. So, Zhurin in one of his articles pointed out that the activities of children should have a variety of tasks associated with utilitarian purpose that in its opinion, give the child an opportunity to transform the environment. Social education at that time was generally opposed to education of the individual. Development in children’s collective skills, the ability to live and work collectively for the development of social activity, fostering the taste for socio-political activities of all of this is clear and effective in the classroom decorative arts and can be seen in the decoration of the rooms, making toys, the manufacture posters, stagecraft, labor activities.
Considerable attention to the question of the educational role of the environment in the period paid E. Florina. From her point of view, the artistic education of preschool children gave the most positive results; it is necessary that the child from the earliest years was brought up in a proper, suitable to the circumstances of his age conditions. Appreciating the independence of analysis and evaluation of children others things, it came from the close relationship between the material environment and its social significance. Particular attention is paid to activity in the practical work of organizing the environment. The latter, in her opinion, is especially necessary, since the vital task of the age of the child require, first and foremost, the orientations in the material environment, otherwise in the first stages of life the body dies/…/. Each object and material has its own properties that determine the activities of the child/…/, its orientation, its quality and results/…/, the situation should stimulate and guide children’s activities (the Role of material environment in the development of artistic and creative development of the preschooler. M., 1921. P. 10). This is very expressive and spoke N. Bruce: all the way a person’s upbringing should lead to the same outcome the ability to live, and the ability to experience life and to Express their feelings, to Express their creative will and strength that should give aesthetic education through art.
A prototype of such education, scientists and teachers saw children’s game, in which organically joined both order attitude towards creative actions and experiences. They also stressed the importance of toys as tangible, the primary symbol of the replacement of a living being the real thing of importance not only in the game, but in real life, considering it as an element that helps to master the materiality of the world, its material reality. Toy is the original sculpture, the first thing that a real three-dimensionality and symbolism of images are combined, creating a child’s play toy action symbol. All this primary value of a toy as the start of a three-dimensional plastic creativity of children/…/. Toy manufacturer immediately will impose the terms of a child’s attention, a number of plastic materials, diverse properties of empathy, the nature of the surface and colors will give tribute to the toy in a child’s eyes the definition of art (A. V. Bakushinskii).
A. V. Bakushinskii pointed to the fact that the production of children’s toys, posed first in the game and the initial familiarization with the plastic properties of materials and technique, could later turn into a truly artistic process, striving for completeness of manufactured things. Studies of children’s creativity lead the author to the conclusion that the decorative-applied art in different periods of a child’s life is crucial in shaping his perception of art, bears the distinctive view of the world, helps to perceive a new reality, creates the ability to organize the environment, your world, to create a certain mood.
Attempts to involve children to the artistic environment and the specific experience of practicing teachers in 20 years has allowed us as a result of its generalization to isolate a positive example of artistic creativity, in the implementation of works related to the organization of space. Developing the skills of creative interior solutions, ways of decorating environment combined practical work with the study of pattern and ornament. Ornament proposed to enter as a core and mandatory element of decoration of interior space architecture. However, research scientists-teachers of the past were associated primarily with specific activities. Most of these were classes in decorative and applied art, design, artistic scenes in the school, decoration of the demonstrators for the holidays.
A unique parenting experience through space and the environment exists in Japan. Traditions art culture research of art historians (Training of designers abroad// Proceedings of VNIITE, 1979, 1981), are grouped in three directions: the relation of tradition to modernity; the relation to Western (European-American art); the relationship of education to the modern culture and industry. The General direction of the modern view of art in Japan can be defined as no occurrence of new through old and the restoration of the old in the new cycle, what is meant by the sign of traditionalism. In this interpretation between past and present there is no gap. The new emerges not by destroying the old, and by kind of nadstraivaniya over it or ingrowth him. In General, Japanese pedagogy long based on the direct transfer of knowledge and skills from the teacher to the child, on the absolute authority of teachers in education in art. A kind of identity between life and tradition: tradition is the life, and the life tradition. And she’s artistic activity is defined as a very human thing, as an artistic activity aimed at creating environments that enhance people’s lives.
Therefore, the first task of education in the Japanese school education of the child’s feelings, sense of communication on the level I thing I and the environment, understanding the relationship of things and human conceptions of living things. Special and attention is drawn to work with the form. This essential approach to shaping assumes that the sense of form allows you to read the meaning through is similar to the ability of a musician to identify any tone.
In these classes seamlessly include knowledge of the basics of other arts and disciplines mastered in the process of education, including labor education. Thus, on the basis of the developed design formula complexity of education and training. The experience of Japan is a situation when the organic inclusion of aesthetics in Japanese secondary schools is based on a long national tradition, particularly on the deep conviction that aesthetic sense, the ability to empathize the beauty turns a human being into a civilized individual (Ustinov A. G.). The need for this approach due to personnel policies of the state concerned in common aesthetic education of consumers and industrial producers, because obviously, for example, that people, from early childhood brought up in traditions of love and respect to beauty, would not allow himself the obvious defect in the manufactured products … well-developed esthetic taste an important impetus to the qualitative development of the internal market. And finally, according to Mollek Joshikanva, the design will form the creative skills and students will learn to find their place in society that will allow them to discover their individuality and independence (Traditionalism and modernity in the Japanese school of design //Proceedings of VNIITE No. 50. M., 1986. P.11).
Educational policy of Japan, aimed at introducing children to art from an early age, is not a fashion or Fluke: so, according to scientists from Japan, need to educate fundamental sensations and feelings arising from the presence of man and things and their environment. This feeling arising from the knowledge of the existence of is actually things. This feeling of balance and proportionality that arise from the knowledge of the relations of things with each other and with man. This sense of understanding of the birth things. This understanding of the fact of dying things. Human feelings, formed in the aggregate of all these different sensations allow us to realize the beauty of being of things (Kenji Sackenii). These fundamentals of design implementation of Japanese educational institutions can be divided into three areas:
- education humanity;
- awareness the connection of man with the environment;
- education of the creative personality.
For the first group characteristic is the development of a child’s feeling of joy, creative work. For the second group understanding the relationship between mental images (produced by the environment) and conditions of their formation. And finally, the third group suggests the development and formation of modern views on art and education students the ways of expression of the idea, the basics of composition.
Man develops his life, creates an environment of his life. Making it, he not only guided by practical sense, but also embodies in the things of his understanding of the world, beautiful and useful. He seeks how to balance himself in this environment, adapt to it, compensating at home which sometimes lacks in life. It is therefore important that from the earliest years of a child have loved and appreciated beauty. The first school in the knowledge of a great need to be home, family, and those items that create a homely environment. Unfortunately, the majority of children (95%) after high school, hardly ever going to be constantly faced with art, in the best case this will happen occasionally. Consequently, agencies at all levels of education rests the responsibility for the maximum involvement of children to the arts early childhood in this leading role.
To compare an example of art education, designed in accordance with the surrounding spatial environment that exists with Japan, with the experience of our Russian educational institutions where teaching art exists in isolation from life, to take just one example of how our children and their parents are uneducated and ill-mannered in this respect.
The actual practice, as shown by our studies, is not perfect. We have conducted a pedagogical experiment to determine the abilities and performances of children in the organization of residential interiors (children’s room or area of the child space). The experiment included students from 48 classes of one many a secondary school in Moscow. Children it was proposed to draw your room or part of the way they think right and necessary. Parents were asked not to help and not to advise. We were interested, first, what and how to use students to decorate their interior, what items they put in the room, and, secondly, it was interesting how different the preferences of children in the nature of the design of the house depending on age. I wanted to see the child seat in the General structure of the home environment, the degree of participation in the process of organizing the interior of the apartment.
It is noteworthy that the experiment was conducted in the new Moscow district, that is, children who participated in the experiment, lived in new houses, which stood near the school (this was especially interesting, as any man, creating his new home, trying to organize his life afresh and anew; on the other hand, each brings into a new apartment, their attitudes, their tastes, their understanding of the comfort, convenience and beauty).
In the experiment we received 125 color slides of the interiors of children of three age groups. Below material studies were characterized by a greater objectivity, we are anticipating the experiment, conducted a survey in three schools. Proposed in the questionnaires the students answered the following questions: do they have a separate room, whether they participate in the repair of an apartment, or not consult with parents about the decoration of their room (what the Wallpaper paste kind of furniture, the objects in the room to put and on what place etc.), in which the circles of fine art or decorative art children are doing or not doing; whether they decorate their housing patterns, etc. In the result it was collected six hundred and eight questionnaires. The resulting materials were indicative of a fairly good housing conditions for children. A particularly pleasant and unexpected was the fact that almost every child had their own room, nearly 60% of children worked in the studios, circles of different directions in the field of fine arts. The questionnaires were convinced that children actively participate in all the family to create interior rooms.
Unfortunately, after visiting the actual apartments bright ideas have vanished. Noting the good material conditions of families, it should be stated that the child in these expensive interiors no place. Polished furniture, expensive carpets, expensive dishes, expensive things cal children. We surprised found, in the interior no toys (in the best case, they were on top of the wardrobe), we have not seen even basic equipment and conditions to ensure that the child, without fear to break anything, stain, scratch, could do something at your pleasure (sculpt, draw, glue, etc.). Did not differ in any particular pattern Wallpaper children’s rooms, there was no special children’s furniture or any convenient fixtures for working children or children figures in the interior of their rooms.
Sometimes it was hard to understand who is the master room which we were shown (room adult or student 46 class). For all interior were characteristic stiffness, dryness and monotony: large study table with two side tables by the window, table lamp, book shelf, map on one wall, a carpet on another wardrobe with clothes and utensils, and a Palace, a rare aquarium, sometimes painting, often color pictures between the glass in the sideboard, artificial flowers.
Appeared the impression of General anonymity of the interiors of apartments and their tenants inhabit. But if you look at history, go to the old peasant hut, wondering to what extent the Russian peasant loved their homes, decorating it inside and out, the ingenuity with which they made the furniture, utensils, clothing, towels, tablecloths. All looked through loving towards household items, daily use. Urbanization of life, industrial production has deprived us of individuality.
The experience with the students of the school we led with the purpose to demonstrate the importance and the need for this area of work with children from kindergarten, raising thereby the data the child emotionally-sensual perception and art. Learning ability to dress nicely, to create your personal interior, your environment should be a matter not only of schools, but also preschool educational institutions, because in this period of childhood is formed a taste for the color, develop color preferences. In this we see the main task in the development of visual art in kindergarten.
Returning to the above, it is safe to say that the environment is Central to all educational, developmental, and mental activity. In order for the process of education was not formal scientists (V. V. Davydov, A. B. Pereverzev) substantiates the position that the subject-transforming activity with real space is the original form of all activities of the child: playing, learning, working. However, they allocate certain requirements to integrated environment which facilitates the holistic development of children.
First, the environment should be enough heterogeneous and complex. It should consist of a variety of elements.
Second, the environment must be sufficiently coherent, allowing the child to move freely from one activity to another and allocate them as interconnected moments of life.
Third, the environment must be sufficiently flexible and manageable both on the part of the child and of the teacher (Davydov V. V., Pereverzev L. V. study of the subject environment for children // Technical aesthetics, 1976, No. 34. P.46).
Their observance allows students to participate in the creation of an environment to change it, contributes to the development of concerned and active attitude to the subject and the natural world.
!Creating and organizing the subject-spatial environment, man perfects his own nature, the change of which is determined already not biological laws, and specific laws work and social relationships.
Considering the environment as the essence of existence and the individual, and society as a whole, we believe that it is the original form of all types of art activities child teacher, educator, parent: games, educational, employment, extracurricular, etc. the transformation of the space educational activities with age-appropriate is also important because the child from the first days of his life immediately comes under the influence of multiple environments and spaces (house, game room, street), which often inhibit the child, influencing it with their size (adults, furniture, Pets, houses, cars, trees, etc.). This feeling is huge, large adult space from children to older adolescents, and this must not be overlooked. So he tries to hide in his toy space where it is comfortable, where everything corresponds to his age, size.
Reliance on the direction of development, interaction with other arts teaches children to creatively solve any proposed caregiver task, forms a flexible mind allows us to find the relationship of various knowledge and phenomena in solving a specific problem.
As a result of generalization we have also highlighted a number of areas of activity of the child, which can serve as a kind of educational activities for the development of different types art:
- The gaming system of communication in the environment, space exploration children through organized environment.
- The motor sensation and the development of space art in action.
- Live, constantly changing active space.
- Spatial activities (dance, theatre).
- Spatial framework learn structural problems in art
- The development of harmony in art and nature.
- Architecture in the history peoples.
- Implementation and multi-art creative potential of children in a variety of types of activities subject to the unity of sounds, words, colors, movement, society, games drama, the diversity of types of art.
Following these conditions, we can say that any preschool should strive to become for the children the house where you can conduct a variety of experiments and research, in which to study, learn, experiment, play, break and build, care for animals, fish, birds, to dance, to sing, to listen live music, work with paints, clay, paper, construct buildings of all kinds of material in one word, children must be actively and productively to live in the environment of the kindergarten, in the full sense these words without fear to do something wrong. Subject-spatial environment of the kindergarten must meet the needs of children in motion, in action, in creativity. It is quite natural that such an environment presupposes appropriate equipment, allow the child to take the initiative and freedom of action: jump, climb, designing a space from larger shapes (boxes, screens, fabric)