- Education abnormal child
- PRIVATE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN ACCORDING TO TYPES OF ABNORMALITIES.PSYCHOSENSORY VIOLATIONS
Education abnormal child
Education abnormal child systematic and purposeful influence on consciousness and behavior with the purpose of formation of his personality, comprehensive development, adapt to children, integration into society, compensation of its defects correction of defects caused by this defect.
Distinguish the General objectives of education, which coincide with the General principles of pedagogy (in particular, training to the active public useful life, formation of personality, social qualities, etc.); and special challenges that depend on the nature of the violations, and are associated with overcoming their consequences.
Conditions for special education
Education is provided in close contact between home and school; the atmosphere of mutual understanding, mutual help; important adequate combination of rigor and gentle treatment. It is carried out taking into account individual and age peculiarities of the child; requires fair treatment of others to his mental or physical shortcomings that excludes the fixation of attention on the anomalies.
Education, in General, generates the following qualities in abnormal child: independence, self-help skills, work culture and behavior, ability to live and work in a team, optimism and confidence, the ability to overcome difficult situation, to adapt to the environment, to critically evaluate their actions.
The training of abnormal children it targeted the process of transfer and assimilation of knowledge, abilities skills activities. In the organization of special education take into account the degree and type of anomaly age children and the formation of developmental disabilities.
Correctional pedagogics deals with issues of special didactics, theory of education and training of abnormal children. Moreover, the tasks, principles, forms of organization of educational process developed for each specific type of special training institution. This is differentiation and individualization of learning.
Individualization (Latin for appeal to the individual or the individual) is an individual approach to teaching abnormal children, according to which the issues rehabilitation, compensation of lost functions are solved with the features of abnormal development of each child.
Differentiation (with Latin separation, distinction) the separation of anomalous children on the basis of preliminary survey depending on the anomalies in the respective groups, or students in different educational institutions or in special classes, with the use of the most appropriate in their group teaching methods. For example, the differential diagnosis is to identify the children with delay of mental development in the mass school and providing them with special classes.
Development abnormal child to a greater extent than normal depends on the training. Therefore, in the absence of special training or delay the beginning of the formation of the inhibited mental functions, deepening the gap of abnormal children from normal peers; for complex defects of the possibility of mental development can be practically implemented.
Therefore, the training and education needs to evolve, i.e. it must be specifically aimed at the development of lost or reduced functions. It should take into account the zone of proximal development as the supply potential, the emerging psychological functions of children with abnormalities. He can’t even implement them on your own, but only with the help of a teacher. Training should encourage the transition of the zone of proximal development zone of actual development, when the child is able to execute arbitrary activities. Thus, properly organized learning results in development, with the emerging mental functions.
Correction (from the Latin fix) is a system of psychological and pedagogical measures aimed at correction or weakening of the shortcomings of psychophysical development of children. Under correction is understood as the correction of individual faults, and integral impact on the abnormal personality of the child. In relation to correctional pedagogy this approach is defined as correctional and educational work.
Correctional and educational work is a system of comprehensive measures of psychological-pedagogical influence on the different characteristics of the anomalous development of the whole person. This is due to the fact that each defect has a negative impact not only on individual mental function, and reduces social adaptation of the child in all its manifestations.
Therefore, it is not limited to specific corrective exercises that develop specific mental processes, and covers the entire educational process.
The essence of correctional education is in the formation of the mental functions of the child and enrich his practical experience. At the same time overcome their speech disorders, motor skills, sensory functions, behaviour, etc. It is aimed at the prevention and correction of abnormalities of mental development, preparation for learning and life in society.
Education involves a combination of educational and therapeutic interventions, as well as the specificity of abnormal development and age features of the child. In each case assess the degree of underdevelopment in comparison with age norm, consider its qualitative features and clinical diagnosis and potential development opportunities (E. M. Mastukova,1992).
The correctional educational goal are subject to all forms of good and great work in the process of forming educational and job skills. First there is learning about the environment, formation of self-help skills. Then they get General knowledge and professional skills. Important correction of disorders in the emotional sphere and the removal of personal shortcomings. In some cases, also apply the medical corrective measures (physical therapy, massage, FLUORIDE, intake of drugs etc).
Compensation (from the Latin – compensation, trim) is a complex process of replacement or rebuilding of the broken functions the child. It is associated with the mechanisms of adaptation of the organism, of the psyche to the environment due to congenital or acquired (illness or injury) abnormalities. The basis of compensation is the repair or replacement of the broken functions.
The compensation process is based on significant reserves of higher nervous activity. In addition to biological adaptability the body, which establishes its equilibrium with the environment, compensation in humans due to the development of all aspects of the individual, on the basis of employment and its associated social relations. The compensation process is the formation of new dynamic systems of conditional relations, the correction functions, the development of personality.
Payment is due to the activation of protective forces and the mobilization of standby resources resisting the pathological process. Special training to facilitate these activations and to accurately target potential opportunities for compensation.
L. S. Vygotsky formulated the law of transformation of the defect minus the plus of compensation. “The uniqueness of positive abnormal child and is not created by the fact that it fall out certain functions, but the fact that it brings to life, new education, representing the reaction of the individual to defect compensation in the process development.”
We know that the sooner begin correctional work, the faster develops the compensation process. At its beginning in the early stages of development prevented the development of secondary psychological disorders. In connection with the gradual development of payment, it is important to carry out remedial educational activities consistently at all stages of development, taking into account their specifics.
The reverse process is called decompensation. It is a disorder activities of a particular system or organism as a whole as a result of violation of available compensation. This greatly decreases the efficiency and slows the development. Decompensation is related to the fact that abnormal children are very susceptible to adverse effects. When illness, mental overload and stress, the new unusual conditions of activity of compensatory processes they can be violated.
These acute functional disorders contribute to instability and weakening of the mental processes. Therefore, abnormal child needs the creation of protective psychological regime, restriction of academic load.
To the favorable conditions, also contributing to the development of compensation from abnormal children include:
- A properly organized system of training and education, providing differentiated network special institutions; construction of educational process on the basis of special methods and techniques of correctional and educational work.
- The use of the principle of connection of education with labour as the primary means of versatile harmonious development of mental and physical abilities of children
- Adequate psychological relations in children’s collective, as well as between teachers and pupils.
- The right organization of educational activities and recreation for children, warning mental strain;
- The alternation a variety of teaching methods, education, including those aimed at increasing activity and independence of pupils;
- The use of a variety of technical equipment, use of special equipment and teaching AIDS for optimal use of the capabilities of the children.
Rehabilitation (from the Latin recovery of fitness, ability) – deliberately carried out the process of recovery of body functions abnormal child the limits its physiological possibilities.
There are rehabilitation of health, labour, psychological, pedagogical, social. However, a more effective, integrated rehabilitation that uses a variety of restore: physical education, physical therapy, labor process, medications, psychological correction, etc. are distinguished on the one hand medical devices focused on the elimination or mitigation of defects, as well as special training, education, and finally professional training and social adaptation. Medico-pedagogical rehabilitation goal is the inclusion of abnormal child in a social environment familiarizing to social life and labour, i.e. his social rehabilitation.
The habilitation is a system of therapeutic and educational measures aimed at the prevention, treatment, correction of developmental disorders in children of early age who have not yet adapted to the social environment. This applies to disabilities arising in early childhood due to prenatal or perinatal brain damage (similar to alalia – aphasia) (E. M. Mastukova,1992).
Adaptation (from the Latin – adapt) – adaptation of the structure and functions of the body, its organs and psychological systems to the environment. Sensory adaptation – the adaptation of the senses to acting on them stimuli. It is achieved through increase or decrease the absolute sensitivity, as receptors and nerve centers of the analyzer. Plays an important role in compensation defects vision, hearing.
Social adaptation is a process of active adaptation of the individual to a new social environment; or the enforcement of individual and group behavior of abnormal children in conformity with the system of social norms and values. It is important to the adoption of individual social roles. The effectiveness depends on the adequacy of the perception of the individual myself and their social relations. A bad self image leads to violations of adaptation – disadaptation, which in particular is manifested by autism or school maladjustment.
Have abnormal children because of defects in complicated interaction with the social environment, reduced ability of adequate response to change, increasingly complex requirements. They experience particular difficulties in achieving their goals within the existing standards, what can make them an inadequate response and lead to behavioral disorders.
Therefore, social adaptation, and designed to ensure adequate relationship with their society, with collective conscious of the social norms and rules. Family education is an active factor in the rehabilitation, inclusion of children with abnormalities to active community service.
Questions and tasks
- Analyze the relationship between education, maturation and development.
- What features of the education of children with developmental disabilities?
- How is the process of differentiation and individualization of their education and training?
- What is compensation and its role in correctional education?
- Give a description of rehabilitation and habilitation.
- What forms and mechanisms of adaptation you know?
- What is maladjustment?
- Expand the essence of the concepts: social adaptation and correction of developmental disorders.
- Ganeev A. D. et al. Fundamentals of correctional pedagogy.- 1999
- Defectology. The dictionary-directory /Under the editorship of B. P. Puzanov.- M.,1996
- Speech pathology dictionary. M., 1995.
- The corrective work in a special school and preschool.- L.,1985.
- Lapshin V. A. B. P. Puzanov. The fundamentals of defectology. M., 1991.
- Solntseva, L. I. the Development of compensatory processes in the blind.- M., 1998.
- Troshin, O. V. Special psychology and pedagogy.- N. Novgorod,1999.- Vol. 1-8.
- Troshin, O. V. Fundamentals of special psychology.- N. Novgorod, 2000
PRIVATE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN ACCORDING TO TYPES OF ABNORMALITIES.PSYCHOSENSORY VIOLATIONS
Occur in 25% of cases. The disruption of fetal development of the organ of hearing is often associated with pathological heredity. Can be inherited aplasia (underdevelopment of the inner ear), atresia (atresia of the tympanic cavity, external auditory canal). It is also possible hereditary predisposition to developing severe hearing loss when exposed to weak pathogenic factors (the innate inferiority of the auditory organ). Congenital violations hearing develop as a result of effects on the fetus viral infections (measles, rubella, influenza), especially in the first three months of pregnancy; intrauterine intoxication due to chemicals, drugs, alcohol; and also in connection with the birth trauma. Than previously observed pathogenic effects, the more severe violations it causes, due to the greater sensitivity of the auditory system.
Are more common and usually are caused by infectious diseases of the child after birth (scarlet fever, mumps, influenza). Thus the peripheral part of the auditory system affected by otitis media, inflammation or trauma to the inner ear. Central disorders develop on the background of encephalitis, tumors and vascular diseases of the brain. The auditory nerves also affects the toxic action of certain drugs (quinine, antibiotics, streptomycin) and chemical substances (mercury, lead). A common cause of hearing are loud noises, head trauma.
In a correctional institution enrolled in type 1 deaf children and its main objectives are: the correction and compensation of deviations in development of children, formation of speech, verbal-logical thinking, the development of residual hearing function.
There are three levels of education:
- Primary education (4 years);
- Basic education (6 years);
- Secondary General education (2 years).
At the first stage is carried out work for the development of speech activity (the ability to communicate with others, to perceive it and to share information). In the second stage the formation of personality, development of oral and written speech. On the third level, expanding vocabulary through the study of academic subjects. Work continues on the formation of pronunciation, development of residual hearing, provides high-quality mastering communication with a hearing person.
The facility accepts children from 7 years. For children received special school training, organized a preparatory class. The number of students in class – up to 6 people. Feature training is the use of amplifying equipment. Sign speech is introduced as an optional course at the request of students. Individual lessons for the development of auditory perception, musical-rhythmic classes in acquaintance with world around, for the formation of pronunciation.
Early deafness substantially limits the possibility of language acquisition and leads to deaf-mutism. It is usually not observed in organic disorders of speech, they are secondary character and if adequate correction kompensiruet. Saved analyzers are used by deaf children for the knowledge of and orientation in everyday life.
- Visual-figurative forms of knowledge dominate over verbal-logical. Reading, written work and not oral speech form speech system. The child operates with visual images, its need to communicate with others can not be implemented with the help of oral speech, which is replaced with objects, actions, drawings, or Mimi-sign language. A set of images and gestures form the basis of thinking a deaf child.
- Deaf to the perception of oral speech of others use vision, methods of lip reading. While the perception of visible movements of the speech apparatus impoverishes it.
- Reproduction of oral speech relies on stored visual, cutaneous and motor analysers. In particular; vibroscope used to monitor the mechanical vibrations generated by the articulation.
- Speech a deaf child is unclear, weak sonority, inadequate pitch, sharpness, unnatural timbre. To correct these features are articulatory and breathing exercises.
- “If speaking is becoming a necessity and displaces in children’s expressions, it means that the course is designed along the natural overcompensation of deafness”(L. S. Vygotsky).
Unlike the deaf children, they have residual hearing, which can be used effectively in the learning process and to communicate with others. If not diagnose congenital hearing loss by the end of the first year reduced the intensity of the pre-speech actions (goo goo babble). Such a child almost never learns the language skills and moves on to sign language. Aborted speech function for 4-5 years creates a negative environment for further speech and psychological development. The occurrence of hearing loss after the formation of the question does not limit its further development, despite the moderate shortcomings of pronunciation.
The relative poverty of vocabulary can be combined with improper acquisition and use of concepts; there is imprecise articulation and inexpressive intonation, violations of grammatical structure. Speech development of hearing-impaired children largely depends on the individual characteristics of the child’s activity and independence.
Unexpressed degrees of hearing loss are not always promptly seen by others. Speech difficulties of the child may be perceived as a distraction, or as a result some disorders of attention, and intellectual disabilities. In result of such wrong attitude to the child from others arouses negative behavior (hesitancy, isolation, irritability, and negativism). Only hard-of-hearing children with mild hearing loss and have developed speech, you can study at mass school. But they require additional classes, which clarifies the pronunciation of words assists in the mastery of their sound composition.
In some cases, hard-of-hearing children underachieving in mass school mistakenly sent to special schools for children with severe speech disorders to school for mentally retarded pupils. But in the special school they have no special training behind the school, get used to his inferiority.
1. General features
Currently, the categories include deaf children, totally deaf or have remnants of hearing which cannot serve as a basis for independent language acquisition. Hearing loss with an average is more than 70 dB. It is the loudest, have spoken of the ear is not perceived.
Therefore, deaf children are able to master it only in the course of special training with the help of the safe analyzers – visual, tactile-vibratory and kinesthetic. Originality auditory analyzer lies in its decisive role for the development of speech.
Therefore, deaf children the first to suffer the psychological function of communication, again there is a violation and intellectual development. While speech disorders on the background of deafness are secondary character, because organic lesions of the speech system is not marked. Therefore, an adequate correction is very effective.
2. Features of perception
The hearing allows the process of cognition of the the world to determine the individual properties of the object (its size, shape, material); to estimate the distance of the sounding object, its localization in space; allows you to detect invisible objects, respond quickly to changes in the environment (auditory orientation responses). All of these processes are violated in deaf children, but partially kompensiruet at the expense of other analyzers.
A – visual perception. Noted that deaf children are more observant, more precisely define the individual details compared to the hearing. However, the reduced speed of visual perception of the object – for example, with brief expositions of deaf children learned the items worse than hearing. Difficult perception when dividing the subject into parts, in inverted form, to change its position in space.
Reduced ability to distinguish the properties of objects, there is a lack of visual analysis and synthesis, perception of forms of objects, their outline. However, as a result of training at a special school visual perception by the senior class is almost the same as the hearing children. In addition, a more subtle perception of facial expressions and gestures.
B – skin sensitivity. Vibration sensitivity allows the determination of fluctuations of vibrating objects, propagating in air. Most sensitive to them skin of the fingertips. Due to vibration sensitivity of the person can distinguish between vibration frequency and force.
With the help of special exercises the deaf develop the vibrating sensations, increase their sensitivity to vibration impacts and increase the ability to localize the source of vibration in space. In addition, using special vibrators deaf better feel the tempo of speech, its rhythm, logical stress.
In the static sensations and kinesthetic sensitivity. They provide the ability of keeping balance and ability to orientation in space and connected with the activity of the vestibular apparatus. When its defeat along with the auditory analyzer, marked ataxia, instability of gait, dizziness.
Intact kinesthetic sensations convey information about the muscle tension about the body’s position in space, allows you to navigate in space, to maintain balance. To develop these special skills requires constant training and exercise. The formation of the sense of touch is slower, the recognition of objects difficult. Although by the end of training the sense of touch is approaching the lower limits of normal.
A – memory. At an early age the memory of the deaf in many respects reduced in the future as learning the basic properties of the memory improve. It is assumed that visual memory in deaf above, especially on a bright and basic properties of objects, but worse remember minor details.
Involuntary shape memory saved and arbitrary that require analytical activities is reduced due to the General slowness of thought processes. Evaluation and verbalization when memorizing objects and delayed reproduction are less developed.
Marked delay in the development of verbal memory in connection with speech and language disorders. Further it is noted compensatory development of the image memory to the level of hearing children. Marked distortion of the alphabetic structure of words, disruption of their learning, incomplete understanding subject relationships, and, often, a lack of understanding of the text. Memorization is improving if the material is more pronounced meaning and content. Not enough to remember the spatial location of objects.
B-thinking. It is a complex cognitive process, including analysis and synthesis of the perceived and are closely associated with speech. Therefore, deaf children longer maintained a basic level of implementation of subject-effective tasks in connection with the delayed development of verbal-logical thinking. Therefore, correctional work aimed at the development function thinking to the level of verbal generalizations.
In addition, there is slowness of the processes of analysis and synthesis, insufficient mobility and flexibility of thinking. The process of comparison, selection of the similarity of objects is much slower. The deaf are often called secondary and they do not reproduce important features of the object.
In the future, in connection with the underdevelopment of verbal thinking is hampered by the transition to abstract thinking. This reduces the ability of the imagination to use an item in the new functional assignment.
The generalization is narrowed by volume, is suffering a comprehensive analysis of objects. There is also a failure of arithmetic generalizations of action.
To – speech. Because deaf children can’t hear it, then they do not have need in verbal communication. They can’t understand speech patterns and to imitate them, can’t determine tone of voice, emotional colouring of speech.
Therefore, they are formed of optical samples of words through visual perception of letter composition of the word, which is secured using dactyladenia and teaching the pronunciation of sounds. Ie deaf perceive speech through hearing, and visual-motor way and lack of self-control spoken words. They later acquire the syllabic structure of words than literal composition. It is then difficult to read the words, the mastery of the grammatical system of language.
For the purpose of training and forming close contact with a deaf child is forced to resort to gestures and expressive mimicry. The result is mimico-gesture speech. In particular, the pointing gesture can be used to specify and designate the subject matter, facial expressions reveal qualitative properties of the subject.
The subject may also describe in the form of a loop. Actions are also simulated gestures. Feature Mimi-sign language is long-winded (one word correspond to multiple gestures) and polysemy (one gesture corresponds to many values).
Manual it is original the verbal form of speech, built on the movement of the fingers in the air. Manual signs are indicated by your fingers right hands. In this manual alphabet is based on the conventional alphabet and contains 32 characters.
This speech is an analogue of the speech and is mastered at the age of 3 years. Mastering vocabulary they hardly learn the values of generalized terms, comprehend the concept that violates the grammatical structure of speech.
Used also read lips. Speech feedback is not by hearing, but by using kinesthetic sensitivity.
G-activity. Deaf disorders in shaping the physical, behavioral and vocational skills. With the off function of auditory and vestibular analyzers break control movements, their smooth, the rhythm of action, reduced their pace.
The deaf are inclined to perform actions on the instructions of parents or using impersonation. In terms of labor training is worse, they understand the logic and sequence of operations. Objective activity up to 3 years is heritance, in-game detail is observed stereotype. The educational activity is characterized by the limitations of verbal-logical thinking.
There are three groups of patoharakterologicheskie development of deaf children (V. F. Matveev, 1987).
And personality with increased irritability and emotional instability (40%). Marked restlessness, irritability, distractibility, persistence, affectivity, the tendency to conflict, self-centeredness.
It is noted also emotional and volitional immaturity, neustoichivost of interest, heightened suggestibility. Underachievement, it develops slowly. Maladjustment is accompanied by conflict with others.
B – a pathological formation of personality on the brake type (15%). There is a combination of asthenic-neurotic symptoms (fatigue, lethargy, weakness, passivity) with a tendency to phobic reactions (fear), shyness, tearfulness, increased sensitivity. Often there is a low mood, ideas of inferiority, fear of speech, fear of misunderstanding converted the speech of others. Is AutoSize (psychic isolation of the individual), hypochondriac (painful) fixation of attention on somatic sensations, increased anxiety, suspiciousness.
Formed protective-adaptive personality changes (increased punctuality, diligence, pedantry). They quickly adapt to learning activities, less delay of intellectual development.
In pathological development of personality mixed type (35%). Simultaneously with the astheno-neurotic manifestations (irritable weakness) found the traits of excitable nature (conflict, affectivity), and hysteroid features (demonstrative behavior, self-centeredness). This is combined with such features as the tendency to phobic reactions, anxiety, self-doubt.
Questions and tasks
- Give General characteristics of psychological development in hearing impaired.
- What are the characteristics of the process of perception?
- Analyze the originality of cognitive processes.
- What are the personality traits?
- Proanaliziruite type patoharakterologicheskie development of deaf children.
- Defectology. The dictionary-directory /Under the editorship of B. P. Puzanov.- M.,1996
- Correctional pedagogics /Under the editorship of B. P. Puzanov.- M., 1998
- Mastukova E. M. Curative education.- M.,1997
- Fire L. the Psychology of abnormal children and adolescents.- M,1996
- Special education /edited H.M. Nazarova.- Moscow, 2000
- Troshin, O. V., Children with deviation development.- N. N. Novgorod, 1998.
- Troshin, O. V. Special psychology and pedagogy.- N. Novgorod,1999.- Vol. 8.
In a correctional institution 3 types are accepted blind children and children with residual vision (0.04 and below) with higher visual acuity (0,08) in the presence of complex combinations of pathology of vision with progressive eye diseases leading to blindness. In the correctional institution 4 types accepted visually impaired children with visual acuity from 0.05 to 0.4 for better seeing eye with a transfer correction, as well as children with higher visual acuity in advanced or recurrent diseases, asthenic phenomena that occur when reading and writing at a close distance. In addition, children with squint and amblyopia (lack of sight in one eye) with higher visual acuity (greater than 0.4) to continue treatment.
The task of these institutions is the training, education, correction of primary and secondary deviations in development, the formation of compensatory skills (at the expense of the safe analyzers), providing the social adaptation of pupils in society. If necessary, can be arranged joint training for the blind and visually impaired children.
In the establishment of 3 types of children 6-7 years of age, 4 7 years. The number of students in class companies 3 types up to 8 people, 4 to 12 people.