The education of children with intellectual disabilities (N. P. Konyaev, 2010)

Contents

In special (correctional) school type VIII the process of education takes place in complicated conditions: need to resolve as is common in the education system, educational objectives, taking into account the limited capacity of the pupils and ensuring special needs in education, forming the missing social, communicative, behavioral, and other skills, personal qualities. The above conditions lead to the fact that the educational process in special (correctional) school type VIII acquires a number of objective characteristics, such as:

  • characterized by dynamism, variability, variety;
  • has a multifactorial nature;
  • it is a unity of purpose, tasks, content, forms and methods;
  • has three types of links: a direct connection from teacher to student, feedback from pupil to teacher, combined communication from parents, teachers, psychologist, speech therapist and others to educator and from tutor to pupil.

The effectiveness and success of the educational process in special (correctional) school type VIII largely depends on the pedagogical conditions in which it is carried out, such as:

  • the availability of special educational programs;
  • providing medical, psychological and social services;
  • limit the individuality and the peculiarities of the development of each child in the collaborative process of teacher and child, children in the class or group;
  • relationship with the learning process and corrective work;
  • the presence of all elements of the life of the child;
  • continuous pedagogical search individual methods, forms, means, their combinations and interactions;
  • professional abilities of a teacher (knowledge, originality of the teacher’s personality, its culture, appearance, interests and Hobbies).

The activities of a teacher will be productive only subject to regularities of the educational process special (correctional) school of VIII type, which are understood in an objective, essential connections between phenomena of the process of education. The main regularities of the educational process can be formulated as follows.

  1. Training takes place in an organized and directed by the teacher the process of life of the child and is determined by the activity of the pupil at a specific point in its development. That teacher creates the conditions for developing in pupils positive attitudes towards participation in the educational process.
  2. Decisive for the education role in the activities has the character of relations between the child and the people around him. To create a situation of trust and mutual respect, as students with intellectual disabilities feel such a relationship and try to be better. Directing the activities of the student, the teacher organizes her in situations of success, which must feel every child.
  3. Impact on child education of the people around him, the higher the more they are included in activities and the more their actions, deeds and behaviour to meet the needs of the child. Teacher educator need to build a working system so to need one student became relevant for the other.
  4. Technology and the whole character of education depends on age, sex and individual characteristics of persons. The degree of implementation of this law will depend on how the teacher-educator will determine the extent of their participation in the activities of the children. With the development of child participation of the teacher decreases but does not disappear.

 

Principles of educational work

The peculiarity of the development of children with intellectual disabilities complicates the process of their education in special (correctional) school type VIII, but does not exclude the General public school the objectives of this work. Community goals, objectives, unity of the main regularities of formation of personal qualities in children with normal and impaired mental development are the cause for the action of the same principles of education, and in secondary school, however, their implementation takes into account the cognitive capabilities and other features of the psyche of children with intellectual disabilities.

Principles of education constitute a system, they are closely interrelated and implemented comprehensively. These are the main provisions underlying the educational process, are divided into three group.

The first group principles answer the question of what to bring? and determines a meaningful level of education, its goals and objectives, allows you to specify them, taking into account characteristics of the individual, group, conditions of education. Among them:

The principle of commitment and community orientation. Based on the definition of education as purposeful formation of personality traits, we can say that the actions of a teacher, not subordinate to this goal, have nothing to do with education. Aimless conversations with children, events and any other activity of a teacher from the education point of view meaningless. The purpose, nature and content of education must meet the needs of society, culture, traditions and interests of the people.

Hence the conclusion: the whole work of the teacher with children should be subordinated to educational goals that meet the needs of society.

The principle of integrity and unity of the educational process. Education includes labor, moral, aesthetic, physical, etc. training. These components of the education have their own peculiarities, but at the same time serve the purpose of comprehensive development of personality. The integrity and unity of the educational process includes the integrity of the development of the individual student with disabilities. The development of intellectual, moral, aesthetic feelings, ideas and concepts takes place in close connection and interaction between them. This principle provides for coordinated activity of various organizations and individuals involved in the education of children.

The principle of communication and educational process with life requires, first and foremost such organization of educational work in school, which contributes to the revitalization of pupils with violation intelligence, of wide social significance. A positive effect of educational-correctional influences on children increases significantly when you include them in business, public usefulness which goes beyond the class and school.

The second group combines the following the principles called institutional. They answer the question of how to organize education? and can achieve coherence and order in educational work.

The principle of pedagogical optimism is based on the idea of L. S. Vygotsky about the zone of proximal development. Teacher-educator, drawing not only on existing current level of development, but also knowing and aware of the potential of the child, builds educational work, having a setting for a positive result.

The principle of remedial and compensatory focus of the educational process rely on the healthy forces of the pupil, the construction of the educational process with the use of intact body systems. On the basis of smoothing, the weakening of the shortcomings of psychophysical development are created conditions, a student can Express themselves as a whole person.

The principle of cooperation between teachers and children implies that the teacher-educator must be a member of children’s activities, changing the nature and the extent of their participation depending on the level development children and children’s groups.

The principle of education of the individual in the collective and through the collective also retains its value in special (correctional) school type VIII. Practical experience and special studies show the possibility of nurturing truly collective relations in the groups of schoolchildren and the use of collective opinion to the educational influence on the personality of the team member. The patterns of development of a team of students special (correctional) school type VIII is largely based on the practice of secondary school. However, in the staff education of children with infringement of intelligence in the management of interpersonal relationships of group members and the influence of team identity on the teacher’s role is more significant than in secondary school.

The principle of consciousness and activity. An important educational task is to help children to distinguish, comprehend, summarize those standards which subject to assimilation. Unconscious assimilation standards behavior does behavioral skill is inert, unstable. Therefore, to ensure the full education of the necessary unity of verbal explanations and practical experience with children. It is important that pupils were active. Only under this condition is strong and conscious mastering by the students of morality. The teacher-educator should be sensitive to the changes in the development of children’s independence and purposeful work on formation of skills to independently organize and conduct their activities, both individual and collective.

The principle of succession of education suggests such organization and methods of educational process at which a particular event is a continuation of previous work, maintains and develops the achievements.

The third group principles of education methodical, they give answers to the question what methods can be used to achieve the goals of education? and based on knowledge of patterns of educational activities. This group includes the following principles.

The principle activity approach. Personality traits are formed in activities and fellowship with other people. Without specially organized activities there is no effective and guaranteed education. Therefore, establishment of activities and interaction of children, this organization, in which function educational and valuable relationships, is a critical challenge and side work of a teacher of special (correctional) school type VIII. Hence education must be implemented through specially organized activities for the children, where the teacher is organizer such activities, particularly at the initial stage.

The teacher must deeply know the features of personality development of each student. The next important principle of education accounting age, individual and typological peculiarities of students. Compared to secondary school among classmates of special (correctional) school type VIII is much more of individual differences caused by peculiarities of the structure of the defect and its personal manifestations in each child. This has revealed certain similarities of behavior, character, activities of the children belonging to the same forms of mental retardation. Knowledge of the peculiarities of the manifestation of the basic defect and all deviations caused by them, will enable the teacher to understand the true reasons for the actions of their pupils and in accordance with this, to take effective pedagogical measures. It is important to consider individual characteristics of each student, his interests, motives, activities, habits, self esteem and level of claims, the situation in the team of peers, attitude towards friends, teachers, education, work, play. Based on these data are planned both tactical and strategic direction of individual approach to student. Equally important in the selection of contents, methods, forms of organization of educational work to focus on age characteristics of students with intellectual disabilities. For example, it is important for special (correctional) school type VIII requirement to educational activities as providing them with specificity and passion, is especially acute in the younger grades.

The mediation, nayavnosti pedagogical impact. The formation and improvement of qualities of the personality of children do not occur as a result of direct actions of the teachers, and through the establishment, change, improvement of conditions of their development, through the organization of activities. At this stage of education is actually the educational intentions and the actions of teachers should be carried out discreetly and do not advertise them among a educate.

Developed by A. S. Makarenko the principle of unity of respect and seriousness to the personality of the pupil in relation to working with children with intellectual disabilities means above all the need to approach each of them with a belief in the possibility of developing his personality, in the presence of students ‘ positive qualities. Providing confidence to the student when the assignment to him of a particular job effective educational reception in school. You need to provide a friendly but demanding attitude to the child by teachers. Requirements for the child requirements should be manageable for him. It should be borne in mind that many children need help in performing certain assignments, responsibilities. Requirements students must consistently challenge the development of children. At an older age, when they are formed into collective attitudes among children, the students must consciously implement the requirements of the team, to learn to subordinate their own interests to the interests of the collective. In this collective, and the individual the necessary guidance and corrective assistance of the teacher. Hence the principle: the work of a teacher with children should be based on a humane basis, combining responsiveness, attention and kindness of the teacher towards children with reasonable demands on him.

The education of children with intellectual disabilities (N. P. Konyaev, 2010)

The principle of parallel action. The educator in working with children cannot act alone. The success of the education provided by a single purposeful activity of all organizations and individuals of the school, covering the entire life of the children and using all educational means. The meaning of the parallel activity is the unity and coordination of all educational influences, in mutual support and reinforcement of one event to others, the unity requirements.

 

Success in educational work with students with intellectual disabilities determined by the constant observance of all principles of education.

The education of children with intellectual disabilities (N. P. Konyaev, 2010)

The goals and objectives of educational work

Educational process in special (correctional) school type VIII have to do with secondary school and is oriented to adequate the capabilities of students level. In this regard, it is important to consider that the decision of educational tasks on a more basic, lower level doesn’t facilitate the educational work in a special school, and significant least complicates, makes difficult the process of raising children[4].

When defining the goals of education should be guided by the General provisions:

  • the goal of education must meet the needs of society and the state;
  • the goal of education should match the abilities and needs of children with violation intelligence;
  • goals should be specific.

The objectives of the education of pupils of special (correctional) schools of type VIII are the formation of their active life position, which would correspond to the norms of morality and ethics; comprehensive development of personality of students; prepare them for independent life, social environment and work. A special objective is to increase the regulatory role of intelligence in the behavior of the student in different situations and in a variety of activities. Corrective influence on the process of upbringing of pupils of special (correctional) school type VIII is most effective if it is focused on formation at children of higher forms of mental activity, logical thinking.

Under the influence of correctional-raising impacts the development of children with intellectual disabilities as it goes from the top down: the correction of the shortcomings of the most complex and later formed the child’s mental process of logical thinking to correct shortcomings of other forms of mental activities, including the emotional-volitional sphere.

The team is part of the educational environment in which the developing child with intellectual disabilities. PS Vygotsky stressed that the team stands in first place as a factor of development and correction of the shortcomings of the mental functions of the child. However, the real group, which operates tutor can be at a lower level of development. Therefore, the educator is interested in the transformation of a group of children in a band.

Collective activity objectively creates conditions for expansion of relationship and stability between their children. In this regard, the task of education is to establish the relationship of children with others, development needs in active communication developing the ability to cooperate. Communication students organized in the classroom and in extracurricular time. The relationship students develop mostly in extra-curricular activities.

Important the task of an educator is the growth and development of children with intellectual disabilities such qualities as curiosity, interest and motivation for new activities.

In the process of purposeful pedagogical work in children can develop a complex system of interests and needs. Using these interests as a factor of increasing activity as the driving force of actions, you can turn those interests and needs are the basis for the formation of student’s personality in General.

The education of children with intellectual disabilities (N. P. Konyaev, 2010)

The most important task of identity formation of a student with intellectual disabilities is the education activity and independence. Therefore, the teacher should strive to strengthen student with intellectual disabilities, as education without activating the child is unable to perform its leading role in its development. Education affects the development of the student through the activity and their own strength of the pupil.

In front of the teacher and educator is another no less important task of education is the formation of students objective assessment of ambient and true self-esteem. Its solution contributes to the formation of identity, without which neither the individual nor its development.

All of the above tasks are special (correctional) school type VIII taking into account the real possibilities of a particular group of students, their mental and physical features. This task of education students means recognizing the true possibility of their social rehabilitation on the basis of full inclusion in society.

The complexity and intertwining of emerging and functioning in real life children relationship makes the organization of educational work difficult, therefore teachers are usually isolated in some areas (sides or areas) that you can distribute main groups of relations. Such grouping allows us to more thoroughly consider the goals and objectives of education. Traditionally allocate the following areas of educational work: moral; labor and economic; physical; mental; civil; aesthetic. There may be other areas (political education, legal education, environmental education, sex education, Orthodox education, health education, etc.). They differ in their objects, that is, those qualities and relations, the formation of which is meant.

Implementation of the above objectives, the educational work that ensures the successful development of a child with intellectual disabilities in leading activities, communication, and everyday life. Therefore, activities, fellowship, the way of a child’s life are the spheres and the core means by which the teacher-educator performs physical and spiritually-moral education, promotes health of each individual. On this basis, for planning educational work the teacher can use the target programmes and subprogrammes, such as Health, Communication, lifestyle, learning, Leisure.

In special (correctional) school type VIII can be offered to use in planning educational work concept, based on the value, cultural and organizational activity, student-centered approaches to education. In this regard, there are the following different types raising activities of students, which is understood as the diverse activities of children used, and often organized by the teachers with the educational purpose: value-oriented, labor, sports, artistic, creative, social, cognitive, communicative, leisure.

Value-indicative activities aimed at understanding and shaping human and social values of peace, of moral qualities, traits of personality, awareness of their J. the Objectives of this activity depends on the level of development of society, its morality and modern ideas of ethics. It is necessary to educate the person responsible and self-critical, aware of their actions and how they affect the surrounding people and society as a whole, honest, conscientious, incapable of deception and theft. Increasingly complex social conditions require the education of schoolchildren and a special qualities: independence, internal independence, creative initiative, self-discipline, abilities and habits of self-control, self-management, self-understanding and self-regulation.

The formation of moral consciousness is very complex and long process, which begins with mastering the basic ethical concepts and moving towards a more holistic belief system, which is based on a person’s beliefs.

The process of formation of moral beliefs involves primarily the formation of such a worldview, which allows students to correctly assess the phenomena of the surrounding reality, to understand the ethical norms deliberately to grasp and skillfully apply in practice.

Value-indicative activity requires the formation of students violation of the intelligence of the senses, which represent the experience of man, his relationship to moral demands, actions, actions.

Another important task is the education of the skills and habits of social behavior. In addressing this problem raises many difficulties due to the characteristics of children with intellectual disabilities. These include the relative weakness of faith, pronounced egocentric orientation, susceptibility to negative influences. The result is correctional and educational work all these difficulties have been overcome.

A significant place in this kind of activity is the establishment of a correct relationship of the pupils in the team. Relationships between students with intellectual disabilities develop and evolve by the same laws, and that between pupils of a school. Senior pupils of special (correctional) school type VIII stability of relations even more, however, children are not adequately assess their position in the system of personal relations. During the corrective-educational work situation of the students in the team can be changed.

Goals of value-indicative activities are: training students in understanding the meaning of human existence, the value of its existence, the existence value of other people; teach all students the knowledge, skills, and social skills of people. Task activities: the formation of students moral and cultural understanding of the world; creating awareness of the importance of the moral experience of the past and the future and my role in it; the culture of communication in the system of teacher student, student student, an adult child; creating in the children’s collective, equal conditions for the communication of all students.

Highlights value and indicative activities:

  1. Development of students ‘ desire to act according to the received moral knowledge in real life situations.
  2. Acquaintance of pupils with the moral positions of people and their moral heroism in the name of humanity.
  3. The study skills of each student in the children’s team.
  4. Training students the design and simulation in the field of communication.
  5. Training in the expression of empathy, the establishment of positive communication, development of communication skills, showing empathy and positive emotions.
  6. Organization of education and counselling of parents on the issue of communication.
  7. Study of the situation separate students and the class as a whole in the children’s team.

The education of children with intellectual disabilities (N. P. Konyaev, 2010)

Labor activity aimed at the creation, preservation and enhancement of material assets, formation of a respectful attitude towards material values as a means of human existence. Graduate of special (correctional) school of VIII type needs to become a professional in the obtained specialty and to bring everyone assumed the case to the end. We need to educate people practical, useful to society, the family and self-sufficient. School should prepare children for the market economy, to educate them thrift, frugality, thrift and prudence, the ability to understand the relationship and the development of prices and services, the quality of the cultural consumer and conscientious taxpayer.

Tasks work activities are: to convince students of the necessity of labor for society and for yourself; to educate interest and respect for the work and to those who are good, professional work, and a desire to work; to develop in students the habit to work, the quest for high productivity and quality; to cause a desire for cooperation with other participants of the labor process and to impart skills of collective work; to prepare for choosing a future profession.

The education of children with intellectual disabilities (N. P. Konyaev, 2010)

Labor activities in special (correctional) school type VIII contains rich correctional opportunities. The goals and objectives of work, its the contents and properties due to their specificity and availability, sense perception help students to develop the ability to relate their actions to work, choose the most efficient methods to perform work. Fabrication of practically useful products increases the activity and interest in the work. You need to understand the importance of developing in pupils a lasting skills self-access work, not only as a factor promoting order and discipline in the school, the boarding school, but also as a means of education of such qualities as collectivism, mutual aid, orderliness, neatness. Important point in work is the professional orientation of the students.

Sports activities occupy an important place in special (correctional) school type VIII, as it promotes physical development of pupils, formation of such important personal qualities as activity and will, the speed and accuracy of orientation, agility, and courage, and also develops skills of personal and public hygiene, cultivates a healthy lifestyle.

A special characteristic of this activity is its correction and Wellness orientation. Motility disorders of children with intellectual disabilities is primarily due to deviations in neuro-psychic status. As a result, many children are not sufficiently robust and are not coordinated movement, the imperfect construction of purposeful motor actions. They do not know how to use their motor experience, difficult to rebuild, have difficulty performing movements on command of the teacher. In addition, some students suffer from paresis, muscle atrophy and other disorders sphere. Infringement of a motility of pupils hinders their industrial activity slows down the overall development, as physical health is the Foundation on which to develop and mental the child’s ability.

The education of children with intellectual disabilities (N. P. Konyaev, 2010)

The teacher-educator must be aware of the characteristics of physical development of children with intellectual disabilities, organizing outdoor games, physical flexing, morning exercises, as all this activates the mental activity of pupils and promotes their physical development.

The purpose and objectives of the activity are dictated by the conditions in which modern man lives (diet, lack of exercise, mental overload, etc.).

In connection with the above the aim of the work of a teacher: the use of health saving educational technologies and instructional techniques to demonstrate the students significance physical health man, education understanding the importance of health.

Tasks such activities are as follows: to create conditions for the normal development of children body (bone, muscle, nervous systems, internal organs); increase physical endurance of children and to improve their health during their stay at school to prepare for physical labor; to protect children from unhealthy lifestyles, alcohol and drug abuse; to provide for the physical prosperity and beauty; to accustom to a healthy athletic lifestyle.

The highlights of the sports activities of a teacher:

  1. Cooperation with medical personnel, educational institutions, medical and preventive institutions of the city with the aim to study the state of physical health of students.
  2. Cooperation with parents of students and the subject teachers within the framework of the indicated problem.
  3. Cooperation with the psychological service of educational institutions with the purpose of formation of students ‘ skills of self-regulation and self-education.
  4. Cooperation with non-school organizations, which is necessary to conduct educational and correctional among students and their parents.
  5. The organization and carrying out of activities that form the right attitude students for physical education and sport.
  6. The formation of students own position on the issue of preserving and protecting their own health.

Artistic and creative activity develops the ability of perception and understanding of beauty in reality and in art, aesthetic views and feelings, needs and abilities to create a wonderful. Violations of the emotional sphere in pupils of special (correctional) school type VIII retard the responsiveness of the beautiful in nature, art, music. Characteristic of children with intellectual disabilities the lack of attention and the weakness of strong-willed efforts hinder the formation of their skills sure to look at the picture, listen to music, etc.

The tasks of the teacher in this activity are: to teach to perceive the beauty of nature and to develop the ability to enjoy it; to teach to understand the beauty of human relationships and bring harmony in relationships with other people; to educate the taste of the reader, listener, viewer; to awaken the need to get acquainted and to learn the art of painting, architecture, sculpture, music, literature; to form the skills and habits to create beauty; to raise a healthy taste in relation to works of art, others things, household, clothing and the ability to describe your sensual experience.

 

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